Teacher Motivation

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1. Becoming a Happy and Successful Teacher

Axioms of Becoming Happy Teacher

To enhance effectiveness among teachers, to enable the teachers to be really happy, successful and to inculcate professional pleasure and motivation among teachers, following axioms or principles are of immense use.

1. Success Formula of Happiness

Happiness (H) = Achievement (A) ÷ Desire (D) = A ÷ D

Happiness in teaching profession, or a matter of fact in any profession and happiness to any person will be there only when achievements are more (or even same) than desires.

Happiness = Achievements > Desires or Achievements = Desires

Being happy in teaching profession does not mean to be being undue friendly and familiar with the students or by adopting cheap techniques to gain effective or by adopting rigid discipline principles to command and seek respect.

2. One who knows the qualities of the teaching as a profession will be an effective, successful and happy teacher

A. Multiplier Effect:The teacher multiplies in the minds of students. Though he/she retires, he/she lives in the minds of the people. Teacher’s image is automatically multiplied in the minds of the pupils.

B. Feedback Effect:A tendency in a person how well I am doing and what I am doing. In teaching profession, chance for this feedback about the quality of work is more.

C. Cathartic Effect: When the teacher enters the class with grief and anger, with their innocent smiling faces, students make the teacher flow out, flush out his/her frustrations. Agonies will be vanished. Joys will be multiplied and sorrows will be diminished.

D. Life Giving Effect: As you are working with living souls, life energy wil be reflected and recharged. Teaching is reaching out to enrich. Teacher is a life giver but not a life taker. Teaching is a life enriching profession. Teacher should be forever at this giving end only. Teacher should be like full overhead tank.

3. One who accepts his/her profession will be a happy teacher

Acceptance is the pre – requisite criterion for a happy teacher. He/she has to accept his/her strong points as well as his/her weaknesses. The teacher should feel proud to be in this profession. Similarly weakness in teaching mathematics, failure of teaching in English medium – all such are to be accepted. Wholehearted acceptance to the profession will make a person an exemplary teacher.

4. One who knows the roots and great lineage will be a happy teacher

Though man has evolved from primitive animals, he/she differed with all other animals. Man has developed the four characteristics – introspection, retrospection, anticipation and communication. By possessing the qualities – to look within (introspection), towards the layers of reality (retrospection), to imagine (anticipation) and to memorize and proven the power of communication (communication) made him/her highly elevated than all other living creatures. A teacher should really make perfect use of these four qualities in his/her profession to achieve success. A teacher should possess ‘need for belongingness’ by thinking about the great lineage of scholars like Socretes, Adi Shankar, Ramakrishna Paramahmasa and Radhakrishnan.

5. One who nourishes the ‘otherness’ will be a happy teacher

To be an effective, successful, happy teacher, occasionally try to cast aside that teacherness. Don’t be teacherish throughout. By developing interest in many small things, a teacher may become a more nourishing person (Bertrand Russel, Conquest of Happiness), Kabir, though a shoe cobbler, Sant Ramdas, though a butcher earned fame in writing literary compositions. Similarly teacher should evince interest I co – curricular and extra – curricular activities. One who nourishes the other talents and nurture them will be a happy teacher.

6. One who enlivens or regenerates classroom climate will be a happy teacher

By enhancing classroom climate, by channelizing the energy of children, by nurturing the creativity of students, the teacher can make the classroom lively. If the classroom prevails with absolute silence as that in grave yard, it will not be an ideal classroom. Teacheing is a difficult job because when something wants to happen and if you do not allow it to happen, it is really difficult. The energy of children wants to flow like fountains and we teachers mercilessly allow it to flow through preconceived channels drop by drop. As teachers we are running bulldozers on the creativity of children. Unlike that if ideal classroom climate is established and if the rapport between teacher and taught is effectively built, the teacher will be a successful and happy teacher. (Herbert Thellen adopter CCDQ for studying classroom climate)

7. One who has optimistic perception positive outlook in life will be a happy teacher

Try to cultivate optimistic outlook and positive thinking towards the educative process. ‘A positive thought a day keeps the gloomy shadows away’. As stated by Thomas Harris in his OK ideology – ‘I am OK, you are OK’. Allowing will enhance positive outlook, negative thoughts to degrade your profession and bring down your profession will make you feel disgusted in your profession and keep you away from professional pleasure.

8. One who accepts ‘origin – ideology’ and discard ‘pawn – ideology’ will be a happy teacher:

How a teacher should be? – is a puzzling question. Teacher at his/her test should be active not reactive must store rather than submit, must author his/her own behaviors rather than have it dictated by authority. The work style of teachers reveals the existence of two types of teachers – those who take risk in originating new ideas being self – relied and termed as ‘origins’ and those who blindly depend on some work of rigid rules in the hands of others are termed as ‘pawns’. The origin feels potent and the pawn feels powerless. The teacher who accepts origin ideology will be a happy and effective teacher.

2. Creating and Enhancing Professional Interest

Education is the apprenticeship of human life. Teacher is the king pin in the educative process. Especially the role of primary school teacher is pivotal as he/she has to lay out strong foundation for the edifice of effective education. Though thus occupied the highest pedestal as torch – bearers and lamp lighters, recently teachers are put to bitter ridicule and criticism as society perceived them as mercenary, irresponsible, uncommitted and not devoted. It is really a matter of greater concern. Whether they lack motivation and commitment, whether they fail to possess professional interest to readily accept new strategies and techniques in their work style to enhance motivation are related issues. The major challenge of modern education is professional development of teacher, as he/she plays a predominant role in nurturing the minds of the students and in molding personalities of younger generations. Despite of various reforms in Indian Education, most of the modern teachers are not genuinely and adequately equipped with necessary knowledge, skills and personality profile to bring out desirable changes in the learner’s behavior. Though many novel and new transactional strategies have emerged out of numerous research studies, most of the modern teachers, instead of accepting the innovative classroom practices, are simply resorting to traditional educative process.

Excellence in work is possible only when the person in a profession possesses ‘professional interest’. Mere possession of professional interest is not the only criterion. Enriched professional interest will definitely result at professional pleasure. Retaining professional interest is equally or to a great extent more required than possession of professional interest.

Every person has a subconscious power in brain to excel in doing anything in a tremendous manner which he/she has to do. We call it as ‘concern for excellence’. It is the concern of a person in doing a work in the best possible manner which is assigned.

1. Professional Interest:

Professional interest is the pre – requisite criterion to be present in a person who opts for a profession. It is the most powerful guiding force in man to make him truly creative in his attempts and endeavors. The failure to possess professional interest in turn leads to void and despair. Professional interest is the significant inbuilt motivational force with which one is emotionally involved and becomes committed.

‘Retaining Professional Interest’ is nurturing the excellence among the professionals with an intention to excel in doing a thing the work which is assigned. It is the guiding motivational force which is a hopeful drive and it is the ‘inbuilt’ innate power which enables a person to crave for excellence in work.

2. Motivational Models:

There are four types of motivational models. They are –

• Affiliation Motivation • Power Motivation • Altruistic Motivation and • Achievement Motivation

Affiliation Motivation: When a person works with a group of his/her own colleagues he/she will have one type of motivation which fulfills the satisfaction of his/her need for belongingness one feels totally belong to that group.

Power Motivation: Normally political people, officers will have cracking for power and the motivation with which they perform their work is power motivation. Power motivation means an urge to influence others in decision making.

Altruistic Motivation: Some sages and saints work with sincerity and devotion. But it is not with any selfish motto. They have the motivation for the public good for the cause of world.

Achievement Motivation: Achievement motivation is the fourth type of motivation which remains unperturbed which is on elevated plan. Achievement motivation is most powerful. Teachers or people who work with achievement motivation will work unselfishly by leaving about the result without any selfish motto. For them process is important but not the product. Persons who excel in work normally has to opt for ‘achievement motivation’ alone. To which motivational model you belong?

3. Techniques of enhancing professional interest:

  • Enhance Achievement Motivation

           a) Idea of unique accomplishment: 

           b) Long – term involvement: 

           c) Competition with others:

           d) Competition with self:

  • Right Interpretation of Failures
  • Self Motivation
  • Resource Management
  • Development of Positive Imagery
  • Nurturance of Innovativeness and Creative Thinking

3. Enhancing Achievement Motivation among Teachers

Success of any educating process depends on the teacher. Many innovative classroom and school practices have been found to be useful to accomplish educational objectives. All the modern innovative strategies of teaching yield positive results, only when teacher has a motive to achieve. This motivation to achieve is called as achievement motivation. It may be also referred to as need for achievement or need achievement or ‘n’ ach. Teachers do differ from one another in their strength of achievement motive. This difference in the strength of motivation to achieve among teachers is the basis for understanding the effectiveness of different schools. A school will be effective in its performance only when teachers working in that school possess high level of achievement motivation.

4. Morale and Organizational Climate

You are working in a school. It has many employees – head master, teachers, non – teaching staff and students. The influence of society also acts on the school. You are not alone in the school. You cannot work for yourself or according to your own work style. You have to work along with others to achieve common goals of the school, i.e. your contribution to common effort need not be under estimated but to be definitely account for. In modern terminology we call the above concept as morale.

In an organization like school many individuals share the responsibility of contributing their efforts to achieve a common goal and at the same time look for their own (i.e. individual) goal fulfillment.

While working in an organization individuals have their role perceptions, role plays to achieve mutually agreed goal/goals. But their perceptions of roles, role – play and goals will be different because of their individualities, capacities, inputs and expected outputs in their final goals.

In order to express the above idea social psychologists coined the term organizational climate. They also agreed that a better organizational climate provides a higher level of morale which helps us to achieve the goals effectively. Thus the morale of a group and the organizational climate facilitates goal achievement by the members of the group and individuals also by providing a better degree of motivation.

Teachers Morale and Organizational Climate:

You are working in a school. School has so many other employees – co-teachers, non-teaching staff and students. At the same time influence of society cannot be neglected. So, what I mean to say is that you are not alone in the school. You cannot work for yourself or according to your own style, but at the same time you have to contribute your share in realizing the objectives of your school and society. I don’t mean that you have to forgo your freedom, style of functioning, benefits etc. I contend that you have to work in harmony ith other members of the group. In modern terminology we call the above theme as morale. Definitely, morale is a foundation of motivation.

5. Work Orientation

Education is a natural harmonious development of child’s latent powers and innate talents. How an individual learns efficiently, evidently depends upon the educative process. Teacher’s role is pivotal in providing education and to the perpetuation of child’s intelligence and wisdom. Teacher helps in motivating children to learn effectively ad ultimately attain scholastic attainment. Hence motivating children, teacher should be rightly motivated first and for that work style of teachers and work orientation among teachers are of paramount importance.

Persons who opt a profession have a crucial puzzling problem before them and it is ‘how to become successful in their work?’ How best to achieve success in work. We work not merely to earn bread in fact the secret of work is ‘to get enriched by work’. Do you get diminished by the work? – No, not at all. Surely we renew by our work. Work is meant for personal progress, need fulfillment and uplift of society. To feel serene, steady, peaceful and enriched is the purpose of work. It is not merely for salary and scales.

Work orientation is of six types. They are –

1. Task Orientation (TO)

2. Incentive Orientation (IO)

3. Significant Other Orientation (SOO)

4. Achievement Orientation (AO)

5. Motivation Orientation (MO)

6. Self – Actualized Orientation (SO)

6. Stress and Glow – onness

Glow – onness, meaning in life, burnout and stress have become current topics of increasing public concern. Glow – onness and stress are opposing ideologies. Some teachers are motivated, committed, who possess all the meaning in life and extreme satisfaction in profession. Some often complain of being under severe stress and heading to teacher burnout. Some members in the profession feel proud to be teachers. They feel delighted in possessing total happiness. Whereas some others hesitate and shirk to mention that they are teachers. They, by loosing purity of commitment feel disgusted by possessing dissatisfaction. Those who love their work, aspire high, rise in ture with these aspirations and get elated with joy at the outstanding performance of their students renew meaning at every stage of life. They are said to be ‘Glow – on’ teachers. On the contrary, though started their career with utmost zeal and enthusiasm, due to interaction with many external intervening forces some teachers often vacuum and disgust in their profession. As they fail to retain the initial interest towards the profession, decreased effectiveness, disorganized performance, anger, outburst, gradually peep in and they are termed ‘Stressful’.

7. Professional Competency

Classroom interactions are the basis for effective communication which in turn will promote appropriate learning among children. Hence a good knowledge about classroom interactions and a reasonable skill in creating and controlling these interactions by a teacher are very much necessary for the enhancement of professional competency among the teachers.

Interaction is generally referred to as a face to face encounter in which communication takes place. Classroom interaction is the purposeful communication situation created by the teacher in which students learn the predetermined behavior. There are many systems for analyzing classroom processes. Simon and Boyer have published a seventeen volumes collection of systems and research findings which is by no means complete even though it describes ninety two different methods of analysis, many of which are in current use.

A teacher who is ‘dominative’ will find more domination contacts among his/her children like snatching toys, striking playmates, giving commands to others, whereas an ‘interactive’ teacher will find more interactive acts among his/her children, such as, sharing toys, offering help and playing harmoniously. This shows the importance of classroom interaction to achieve requisite behavior patterns among children of his/her class.

8. Role Play and Role Perception

In traditional societies, the role of the teacher was mainly to socialize younger generations through the traditional knowledge and wisdom contained in customs, practices, attitudes and values. His/her main interaction with nature was only to coexist with it. As time passed man’s intentions towards the interactions with nature were changed. In the modern times the purpose of knowledge is to win it. This in the modern social context where society is complex, occupations are specialized in nature, division of labor is sophisticated, novelty is the order of the day and values are fast changing, the teacher’s role is also bound to be complex and sophisticated. As a beginner of the formal educative process, the role of the primary teacher is even more complex and sensitive. Most often the societal expectations are for ahead of the school performance, resulting in the degradation of the social status of the teacher and educative process going into wrong hands. The ultimate result is the low motivation among the teachers, because of low social status they receive. So if the teacher can play his/her role to the expectations of the society he/she can regain the highest social status. Thus, a teacher can improve his/her performance and also recognition if he/she perceives his/her role correctly and plays it properly.

9. Communication Skills

Effective communication is a dynamic process. Bernard Shaw opined that communication would occupy a key place and communication techniques determine the structure and scope of the organization. School is an organization. So various interactions in the school organization take place through communication, because communication is the means of establishing interpersonal relationship. Communication provides the base and medium, enabling human elements behave logically, meaningfully and cohesively towards achieving organizational goal, that is learning.

In the process of learning the learner and teacher are important, indispensible and integral ingredients. For that we all know that motivation is the pre – requisite factor in the process of learning. The present module analyzes ad comprehends the importance of communicative skills in motivating the teacher and learner, learning and ultimately the goals of education as the whole.

Let us first contemplate on communication. Communication requires an intention, an intender, a medium and a receiver. In the classroom situation, intentions are the subject matter; intenders are the teachers; media are oral or written, verbal or non – verbal and the mixed; and receivers are the students. The teacher gets motivation by the oral and written communications from the administration. He/she communicates the subject matter to the students through written and oral (verbal and non – verbal) communications. The students communicate with teachers mostly orally. Thus the teachers are motivated by communications and also the students. Hence the effective learning takes place.

10. Feedback Mechanism

Teaching and testing are the two inseparable concepts in evaluation. Teaching without testing is useless and testing without teaching is ridiculous. Evaluation helps in finding out whether desired outcomes in pupils are arrived at or not. Similarly feedback is a technique which acts as a mirror image or reflection for your style of work. It is of immense use to find out the way in which teachers’ teach. Pupils’ performance is one latent feedback which in turn enhances teacher motivation to a large extent. Feedback is the tendency in a person to know how effective he/she performs the assigned jobs.

In teaching profession, feedback is the tendency to know how best a teacher is teaching and how effective teaching paves a way to clear learning. These two act as sources of feedback which definitely have ‘a say’ on motivation of teachers. In teaching profession chance for this feedback about the nature of quality of work is more. Effective teaching will be reflected in the glittering eyes and glowing faces of the learners. There is a large scope of chance for feedback (renewal) in teaching profession than all other professions.

Filling up of zeal and vigor after pursuing his/her technique and pupils’ keen concentration on it is the essential quality to the teacher. Thus he/she has to renew. Teachers normally run, run their routine life. They do not renew. Very rarely renew about their success. It is the cause for fall of standards.

The pupils definitely rate that some teachers are exemplary, inspiring. Some teachers are committed and good and some teachers are yet to be improved. This clearly denotes that there are positive and negative feedbacks. Don’t feel bad about people who give negative feedback. Try to think deeply of your perusal difficulties and of your worldly difficulties. Try to think widely of getting help from some sources. Take negative feedback in a positive manner. Accept your weaknesses and alternative techniques critically examine yourself and get enriched.

When you get a success by getting positive feedback, try to congratulate people around you for their help, sympathy, concern and encouragement. Motivation through feedback is not an outright creation and on a day it cannot be formed, when strong determination and need prevails in you to get motivated, you will definitely be successful.

11. Group Dynamics

Whether it is a cognitive, affective or any behavioral event that occurs in a classroom, it must be a social process. Thus a classroom process is fundamentally a group phenomenon.

The moment a child enters into a classroom for the first time, his/her main concern is not to acquire knowledge or skills that are set out in the curriculum, but to enter into a group and adjust with the group, a unique group called the classroom group. In fact children live in groups and learn in groups. So to guide and lead the students, the teacher should occupy the group leadership i.e. all the students should accept him/her as their leader not by his/her authority but through their hearts.

This requires a proper understanding of the group dynamics or the group processes under laying teacher learning situations of the classroom group. A teacher with a thorough understanding of the classroom group dynamics emerges as a natural and effective leader. Such a teacher will be highly motivated and most successful and derives immense pleasure and happiness for him/her and the society. These are groups in a class.

12. Mental Health of Teachers

Mental health is the ability to adjust satisfactorily to the various strains of the environment. Mental health of teacher is very important for effective teaching – learning transaction of teachers. If teacher are mentally healthy, then they can be motivated to work for the all round development of learners. Teachers, with sound mental health, have a desire to acquire professional information and skills. If the teacher is not in sound mental health, he/she cannot do justice to his/her professional responsibilities and obligations. His/her mal – adjustment not only adversely affect his/her own personality but will produce mal – adjustment among learners.

Characteristics of Mentally Healthy Person:

Mental health is a condition which helps for integrated development of physical, mental and emotional status of a person. Some of the important characteristics of mentally healthy person are

1. Adaptability: A mentally healthy person would be adaptable to the changing conditions of his environment and flexible in his/her behavior.

2. Social Awareness: A mentally healthy person is socially awakened. He/she participates in all social activities.

3. Emotional Balance: A mentally healthy person exhibits emotional control and balance. He/she is able to mitigate emotional tensions in his/her life.

4. Possess Socially Approved Desires: Mentally healthy person possess socially approved desires. He/she does not indulge in antisocial activities. He/she moulds his/her life in tune with social norms.

5. Self – Evaluation: Mentally healthy person checks and improves his/her behavior through self – evaluation.

6. Enthusiasm: A mentally healthy person works with enthusiasm and devotion to his/her profession.

13. Self – Esteem and Self – Actualization

Teacher is the central point in the educational set up in the sense that he/she would be an active actor to activate the ultimate consumer, i.e. the student. If we question ourselves what that the centrality of the central point of the educative process, i.e. teacher, the reply would be the teachers’ self. In psychology we define self concept of an individual as the aggregate of his/her own perceptions of him/her. To put in simple form the self – concept of an individual is what he/she thinks about himself.

Self – Esteem:

Self – respect freedom of expression, independence, respect for others, recognition and prestige are listed under self – esteem. Nobody in this world will under – estimate their selves. One should have his self – esteem otherwise there is the danger of dissociation of personality, and at the same time one should not over – estimate his/her self. Nothing in this world is useless and at the same time anything can be useful for all things. This is law of nature. So also any teacher has his/her own valuable contribution to the society but his/her contribution alone cannot do all things in the world. So as elementary teacher you should maintain your own self – esteem and you should not overestimate yourself. Don’t forget that your self has to contribute a lot to the society.

Self – Actualization:

The term self – actualization means to do what one can i.e. an individual always has an urge to show and utilize his/her capacities for the world. Maslow identified self – actualization needs as beauty, order, unity, justice, goodness, growth, personal development, achievement of full potential and self – fulfillment. Maslow studied the cases of 14 leaders of the world and described the characteristics of the self – actualized people. According to Maslow if you can reach the final stage in the need hierarchy to you can be a self – actualized one.

14. Society and School

School is a sub – system of society. The society visualizes the type of citizens for the next decade and formulates the present school. Kothari saw that the destiny of nation is being shaped in its classrooms. The episode story of school – aims and objectives, curriculum, evaluation, appointment of teachers, their service conditions, what not everything of school management is decided by the society.

School is a subsystem of society and the teacher is an integral and important ingredient of the school. So it is natural that a teacher gets motivation also from society through school.

15. Techniques of Motivating Teachers

Over the years, more and more complex expectations are thrown on to the shoulders of the primary teachers as the society is perceiving the teacher as the nurturer of all good qualities expected from its members. Sometimes a primary teacher has to realize these goals in uncongenial and contra productive situations. He/she may have to work in a school situated in an ugly climate, with gloomy classrooms and poor equipment.

In spite of all these constraints, a teacher can rise to the expectations bestowed on him/her, if he/she is determined enough. He/she can achieve that determination if he/she is sufficiently and properly motivated. This is possible just like a lotus making a muddy pond into a beautiful site since it loves to live in it.

The educative process at the primary stage is lagging behind our expectations more because of insufficient motivation among the teachers than because of other insufficiencies. Hence motivation of the primary teacher is an urgent need. Then how to get motivated? What are the sources of motivation? And what are the techniques of motivation?

Motivation is the art of focusing one’s mind and energy on doing his/her work as effectively as possible. If you want to do something and if you are asked to do the same thing you will readily do it. This readiness is your motivation to do that. On the other hand if you do not want to do a work and you are asked to do it, you cannot do it that efficiently. This energy may come from within or form outside. The former is called intrinsic motivation and the latter is called the extrinsic motivation.

16. Leadership

It is evident that unless the school leadership is effective, a school as a whole will not be effective in its performance. It is also true that, sometimes, effective leadership of head teachers or academic supervisors or education officers may not initiate desirable outcomes if the teachers in a school are not motivated. Leadership, in this context, has to motivate teachers to work collectively and effectively. Success of any teaching – learning transactional situation depend on the nature of leadership, a teacher encounter.

Components of Leadership Situation: There are three major components of leadership situation. They are –

1. Leader – head teacher, academic supervisor or education officer,

2. Subordinate – teacher, and

3. Task Situation – classroom and school situation.

Leader with his/her specific characteristics and perception interacts with subordinates and task situation in order to initiate a desired outcome. These three components are independent and interdependent. Coordination between head teacher, teacher and class situation is essential for effective school and classroom performance.

Leadership Traits:

A successful leader should be possessed with certain leadership traits to motivate his/her followers.

1. Ability to Plan: A motivated leader always has plans for the accomplishment of goals.

2. Decision Making: An effective leader, after careful analysis of a given problem, would make a decision and stick on to that decision.

3. Self Motivation: A leader who is not motivated cannot motivate his/her followers. Hence, a leader should be self – motivated.

4. Prepared to take up tough task: A leader should set an example to his/her followers by undertaking courageously the tough tasks successfully. No employee wishes to be led by a leader who lacks courage and confidence.

5. Empathy: An effective leader must be able to visualize the problem from the subordinates’ point of view.

17. Strategies of Motivation

It is our common experience that sometimes we do our job effectively and at times indifferently. The main reason for this is motivation. We work effectively when we are motivated and indifferently when we are de-motivated. Motivation helps us to work as effectively as possible to the best of our abilities. As every individual is unique, there is no single strategy of motivation that would be effective for all. Motivating teachers is the prime concern, today, to yield better educational outcomes.

In the real school situation, motivation is considered to be the art of creating conditions that allow every teacher to work efficiently. Number of motivational strategies may be tried out for maintaining and enhancing motivational levels of teachers. It is true that teachers can put their best efforts for school effectiveness, provided they are all well motivated. Some of the important strategies of motivation are dealt in this module. You have to choose a particular strategy or group of strategies of motivation depending on the individual, group or the situational demand.

1. Operationalize Target Plans: It is necessary to define targets as clearly as possible. After finalization of objectives, link them to the ability of the team.

2. Involve staff in Decision Making: Better way of motivating your staff is by involving them in decision making. Collective decision making leads to collective responsibility.

3. Distribution of Work Load: Some teachers like to have more and more work. They feel happy when more duties within their capacities, are assigned to them. These teachers will be motivated if large number of duties is assigned to them. This may be called as ‘horizontal loading’. For some teachers it is necessary to assign higher level of duties for retaining and enhancing their motivation. This type of work distribution may be called as ‘vertical job loading’. Some teachers get motivation in their professional development. Through refresher courses and in-service training programs, professional skills can be developed among teachers. This kind of job enrichment motivates these teachers.

4. Democratic Administration: Autocratic administration may yield to good results but here there is a definite possibility of de-motivation among teachers. On the other hand democratic administration gives good results and enhances motivational levels of teachers.

5. Dealing with Enlightened Colleagues: Educational administrators should realize that they are working with a set of enlightened colleagues. They are supposed to motivate such intellectuals who respect logic and rationality. These enlightened teachers are curious to know. Educational officers can motivate them by giving more relevant information related to a particular work. Organize staff seminars on staff development where motivation occupies the central theme of discussion. While doing this, administrators should be aware of their interests and preferences. These entry behaviors can be used as input in this motivational strategy.

6. Introspection: Through introspection, teachers can discover their self – image. Teachers are allowed to answer to questions – ‘who am I?’ and ‘what do I want?’ Teachers with positive self – concept will work with a high degree of motivation. These teachers who are in congenial environment with full support and encouragement will have positive self – concept. But for those teachers who are in adverse environment with little support and encouragement, administrators should provide help in discovering their self – image. Discovering self – image is a vital step towards motivating the individual. These concepts are discussed in the module entitled ‘self – esteem and self – actualization’.

7. Suitable Reinforcement: Precaution should be taken in matching the intensity of reinforcement with the intensity of action. This matching is possible through selection of right incentive for right situation. As far as possible result – oriented incentives are suggested. If the incentives are available without much effort, they lose motivational value.

8. Effective Communication: Major barrier of motivation is ineffective communication. Motivation will improve when communication improves.

9. Caring but not Scaring: Most of the educational administrators use fear as a powerful motivator. Though fear motivates powerfully, it has negative effects. Educational administrators more frequently and easily impose fear, even though it should never be imposed. It may motivate persons for a moment but in long run causes de-motivation. Fearful teachers cannot work effectively. Hence motivate teachers by CARING rather than by SCARING. Persuasion, a challenging assignment, encouragement, sincere praise or a pat on the back are all long – term effective motivators that motivate a teacher and enhance their morale.

10. Career Counseling: Career counseling can help the teachers to adopt and progress in their career. This is essential to teachers to retain their level of motivation and to protect them from being ‘burnt out’. Educational administrators should help teacher by providing necessary information for their career development.

18. Motivational Supervision

The main purpose of academic supervision is to motivate the teachers for better performance. The type of supervisor that motivates teachers is called as motivational supervisor. Some of the important techniques of motivational supervision are mentioned here under.

1. Ideal versus Real: Often academic supervisors expect ideal performance from teachers. The ideal seeks to motivate a teacher through an artificial structure. The real seeks to utilize the real world structure. It is far more effective to use a structure that has naturally evolved than one you try to impose. Motivational supervisor is not to force teachers into an ideal. But it is being aware of and capitalizing on what is real.

2. The Distance Factor: The farther you get from your teachers, in terms of organizational structure, the less effective you will be. Hence try to maintain a close rapport with your teachers for effective motivational supervision.

3. Strengths and Weaknesses: It is necessary to minimize weaknesses and maximize strengths of your teachers through your supervision. Try to avoid emphasizing their weaknesses frequently. Motivate them on the basis of their strengths.

4. Feedback: Every teacher intends to know how they performed. Feedback mechanism informs them how well they are performing toward reaching an objective. Without feedback they are unable to evaluate problems and cannot improve their performance. The important function of an academic supervisor is to provide effective feedback.

5. Rewarding Performance: Rewarding performance is the most important motivational approach. Teachers work hard and more effectively when they are rewarded for their performance. There are many kinds of rewards other than money and to many teachers they are even more important than money. Some of them are – recognition, popularity, praise, safety, efficiency, encouragement, freedom etc. Performance can be improved when these rewards are linked properly to the performance.