South Africa from C.1000 to Independence

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The earliest peoples of South Africa

The Khosian and the Bantu; the origins, migrations, and settlement of the South African peoples. Their political, social, and economic organisation.

The Dutch at the Cape

settlement and expansion. Its impact on African society and the African response

British rule at the Cape

relationship with the African people and with the Boers

The Great Trek

causes, course, effects on Africans, Boers, and British

The Mfecane and origins of the Zulu, Sotho, Swazi and Tswana states

their organisation and development

The Boer republics and British occupation of Natal

political and economic systems and the African response

Missionary activity and its significance in the 19th and 20th centuries

the Dutch Reformed Church and the Independent Churches

Economic developments up to 1910

farming, mineral discoveries and their political, social and economic effects on Africans, Boers, and British.

The Scramble

Anglo-German rivalry, Namibia and Botswana Anglo-Boer wars; unification of South Africa and its significance

African response to the Scramble

Zulus resistance under Cetshwayo and the Banbata Rebellion: the 'Gun War' (Cape-Basuto); the Nama and Herero in Namibia; Khama of Botswana

British rule in Lesotho, Swaziland and Botswana

Nationalist movements up to independence

Constitutional, social and economic developments since 1910

White rule and apartheid; farming, industrial expansion, urbanisation, communications, education and == distribution of wealth African nationalism in South Africa since 1910 ==

trade unions, political organisations, armed resistance


German and South African rule

Sough Africa and outside world today

UNO, NATO, OAU. Sanctions and dialogues.