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Upon completion of the introduction, re-read all information given thus far and ensure all work has been completed correctly.

Section One

1. Name three pieces of legislation relating to food hygiene and briefly explain what they cover.

The Food Act 1981

The Food Act is the main food protecting legislation. It provides authority to make regulations concerning the construction of premises, the preparation, storage and handling of food, the labelling, standard and composition of foods and the conduct of food handlers.

The Food Hygiene Regulations 1974

Set down the minimum standards required of food handlers and food premises.

Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992

An act to reform the law relating to the health and safety of employees, and other people at work or affected by work of other people.

2. List the three basic ways in which food contamination may occur.

  • Bacterial(micro organism)
  • Chemical
  • Foreign Matter

3. Briefly explain the terms,Spore and Virus


Some bacterium in adverse conditions are able to form a thick protective jacket around the nucleus which can remain dormant for prolonged periods of time and will survive cooking, dehydration and disinfectant. When favourable conditions return, the spore splits open and a new cell develops and starts to multiply


Viruses are the smallest of all micro-organisms.They can only be seen under an electron microscope. Viruses are inactive unless they penetrate living cells. They do not grow in food.They can however be carried in food so food acts as a means of transport.

4. List six symptoms of illness from food poisoning.





Abdominal pain

Chills, fever, muscular pain

5. Bacteria will multiply best when in the Temperature Danger Zone; give the temperature range of the zone.

5 - 63°C

Section Two

1. Give one reason why the food handler prior to working with food must remove nail polish?

Could chip off and contaminate food.

2. What are the regulations of the following two personal hygiene issues, when preparing or serving food?


Should not be worn, as dirt and bacteria can lodge in the crevices. Only exceptions are plain wedding band and medic alert bracelet.


Needs to be covered,long hair tied up and back neatly.

3. List four occasions when a food worker must wash their hands.

After visiting the toilet, between tasks, returning to food preparation area, touching body parts, greeting others, combing hair, cleaning, after handling raw products, handling eggs/vegetables, using the telephone, unpacking products, handling waste products

3a. Give one reason for the above:

Possible cross-contamination

5. In five steps describe the correct procedure of washing hands and explain the purpose for each step.

1.Moisten hands, soap thoroughly and lather to the elbow.

2.Scrub thoroughly using brush for nails.

3.Rub hands together using friction for 20 seconds.

4.Rinse thoroughly under running water.

5.Dry hands using single service towels for 20 seconds

6. List five hygienic work habits when handling food

1.Wash hands throughout the working day after each task.

2.Wash hand after visiting the toilet.

3.Keep food out of the danger zone (5 - 63°C)

4.Clean as you go

5.Wear a lean uniform daily.

7.Give one reason why you should not practice the following personal habits during food preparation:(Personal habits: touching mouth, hair or nose).

Potential cross-contamination.

8.What are the food safety standards with regard to wearing disposable gloves?

Use for one task only and then discard.

Section Three

1.Explain the difference between cleaning and sanitising.

Cleanings removes dirt and grease you can see.Sanitising reduces bacteria that are not visible to safe levels

2.Explain the cleaning procedure of work surfaces for food preparation and list the associated cleaning agents.

  • Remove all visible food particles and dirt.
  • Wash with hot soapy water using a brush. -(General detergent)
  • Spray with multi purpose cleaner and clean well. - (Multi purpose cleaner)
  • Rinse with hot water, dry with clean paper towel or air dry.
  • Sanitise, leave for appropriate contact time. - (Sanitiser)
  • Wipe or rinse off with hot water.

3.State one reason why equipment should be sanitised between and after use.

To prevent possible cross contamination from one food source to another.

4.Match the following food items with the appropriate storage conditions to ensure they remain safe for people to eat.

Fresh, raw, or precooked meats,fish and diary products 1 B Dry store, sealed bags stored off the ground (A)
Frozen foods and ice cream 2 C Refrigerator at 1 - 4°C, in separate areas away from each other, covered, labelled and dated. (B)
Dry goods(flour, spices, sugar, cereal and nuts 3 A Freezer at negative 18°C (C)

5.How would you store cooked and raw meat, and give a reason for your answer?

  • Cover and label both meats.
  • Cooked meat is then placed above the raw meat, which should be placed on the lowest shelf.
  • This practice would prevent possible in-direct contamination.

6.Give two examples of how to control food pests in the kitchen and service areas.

  • Keep food premises clean.
  • Have pest control systems in place.
  • Efficient waste management systems in place.
  • Traps, sprays, electronic devices, Pyrethrum foggings and baits employed

7.Why is it important to check and store food items away safely immediately after delivery?

  • To ensure food items that arrive are in good condition.
  • To avoid possible cross contamination.
  • To avoid possible in-direct contamination.
  • To ensure food items are store at the appropriate temperature.

8.How often should water for washing kitchen equipment be changed when using the double sink method?

  • a.Once
  • b.Twice
  • c.When it gets cool
  • d.When it gets cool and dirty

9.State one reason why rubbish bins in a food preparation area need to be covered at all times.

  • Prevents insect and pest access.
  • Odour containment.
  • Prevention of possible cross contamination.

10.List two signs that indicate pests are present on food premises.

  • Droppings
  • Grease runs
  • Package damage
  • Nests
  • Odour
  • Gnaw marks(fixtures, fittings and food)claw marks
  • Sound

11.Why should leafy vegetables be thoroughly washed before preparation?

As the may have soil on them containing bacteria, clostridium perfringens/clostridium botulinum.

12.What is the preferred storage method for fresh fish?

  • a.Near to raw meat
  • b.Bottom shelf in the refrigerator
  • c.In a separate refrigerator if possible
  • d.Above cooked meat

Section Four

1. Explain why temperature probes must be cleaned and sanitised between measuring temperatures of different foods?

To prevent possible cross contamination

2. Give one purpose of a food temperature probe?

To provide an accurate core temperature reading of foods also to check storage/packaging temperatures.

3. Explain the consequence if food is left within the danger zone

Favourable conditions for bacterial growth will develop, bacteria will multiply resulting in possible food poisoning.

4. Why is it important to keep records of food temperatures?

To provide an audit trail and evidence of good food safety practice

5. Explain why corrective action must be taken if the required food temperatures are not maintained when keeping food hot during service (i.e.: Pies in hot box or soups in bain-marie)?

  • Food should be discarded.
  • Temperature of storage equipment checked if necessary corrected.
  • Re-heat fresh foods to 75°C for a minimum of 2 minutes.

6. At what temperature should eggs and dairy products be stored?

4°C or below

7. The ideal operating temperature of a refrigerator is:

  • (a)+1°C to +4°C
  • (b)8°C to +10°C
  • (c)0°C to -5°C
  • (d)+1°C to +5°C

8. What action do you take if a pot with hot chicken stock has been placed in the refrigerator?

  • Remove stock from refrigerator immediately.
  • Cool stock quickly.
  • Blast chill or place container in a sink or circulating cold water.
  • Cool to 10°C or below.
  • Cover, label and return to refrigerator
  • (Check refrigeration temperature)