Proposal Development

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The following are the objectives for proposal development
  • Be able to identify the main parts of a proposal
  • Be able to put together a standard research proposal

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This is a generally accepted format of a standard proposal:
  • Introduction
  • Meaning and Importance
  • Format
  • Review of Related Literature
  • Method and Procedure
  • Budget
  • Time Frame

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Case Study
These are the main areas dealt with in this lesson:
  1. Chapter Format
    1. Introduction to proposal writing
    2. Types of proposals;project proposal,research proposal
    3. Importance of proposals
    4. Differences between a proposal and a concept paper
    5. Format/Parts of a proposal

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Attempt the folowing task to apply the information learned:
  1. Identify a researchable research problem
  2. Develop a brief proposal based on the identified problem

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Tick against the proposal development checklist to indicate aspects covered in your proposal:
  1. Introduction
    1. Background to the problem
    2. Statement of the problem
    3. The rationale/justification and significance of the study
    4. Purpose and aims of the study/objectives/research questions/hypothesis
    5. Scope of the study
    6. Limitations and delimitations
    7. Definition of terms
  2. Literature Review
    1. Importance of literature review
    2. Conceptual and/or Theoretical framework
    3. Reviewing techniques
    4. Relevance of reviewed literature
    5. Critical Inquiry
  3. Research Design and Methodology
    1. Research design
    2. Population/Target population
    3. Sampling/ sampling frame
    4. Instrumentation
    5. Data collection and analysis
    6. Schedule of activities/logframe
    7. Budget
    8. References
    9. Summary and checklist
    10. Appendices
    11. References
    12. Glossary

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This is a general summary or pointers for writing research proposals:
  • Connect your proposal with the interests and priorities of the funding agency.
  • Be concise and comprehensive.
  • Ensure that the organization of the proposal is clear.
  • Make the proposal easy to skim (highlight important points).
  • Make smooth transitions between each point in the proposal.
  • Use direct language and simple sentences; avoid jargon.
  • Convey liveliness and enthusiasm in your proposal.
  • Outline the specific objectives of the research.
  • State your research questions carefully and concisely.
  • Demonstrate how the research will contribute to new knowledge.
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For further reading, refer to the following related resources on proposal development:
  1. Fraenkel, J. R. and Wallen, N. E. (2006) How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education,Sixth Edition.San Francisco,McGraw – Hill Companies
  2. Best and Khan
  3. Saunders, M. Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2007) Research Methods for Business Students, Fourth Edition. London, Prentice Hall.
  4. Orodho, J. A. (2005) Techniques of Writing Research Proposals and Reports in Education and Social Sciences,Second Edition. Nairobi, Kanezja HP enterprises.
  5. Zikmund, G. W. (2003) Business Research Methods,7th Edition USA Thomson South-Western.
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