PNGUNITECH DODL/Matriculation History Grade 11 Unit 1

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The main objectives that are expected to be achieved by the end of this course are listed as follows:

  1. You will be able to
    • define history,
    • discover the divisions of the periods in history,
    • identify the reasons why people study history, and
    • the sources used in the study of history and why these sources are important.
  2. You will be able to identify and discuss the concept colonialism, the different types of colonies and identify the motives for colonizing.
  3. You will also be able to identify and discover various places in the world that have been colonized by various colonizers.
  4. You will be able to identify and discuss the impacts of colonizers on various native people and their experiences and response to colonialism.
  5. You will be able to understand what imperialism is and the efffects of it throughout the world
  6. You will be able to understande the motives of the Colonizers, the desires to meet their needs and wants that enabled them to move out into the world in various ways
  7. The colonialism experience in some countries, how it affected people's lives and their response to colonialism
  8. Papua New Guinea experience to colonialism after discussing other countries.

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Activity 1



The Upper Secondary School Social Science History course statement or Syllabus Outline Grade 11 by the Department of Education published 1989 describes History as:

History is an enquiry into past Human experiences. It is enquiry in which we seek to learn not merely what happened but to consider motives, causes, patterns and consequences. As an enquiry historical study involves distinct skills in examining evidence and processes. Students of history learn of the variety, as well the similarity, of Human experiences; of changes as ell as of continuity in societies, and of origins as well as present situations.

History can also be described as the study of Humanity. It looks at:

  • the way people lived
  • how their way of life developed
  • how they thought
  • how and why their way of life changed
  • how these changes affected them
  • how our life today has been changed by the people of the past

By the end of this course of study you will be able to identify and discuss what factors have affected people actions that have led to experiences that became historical events.

Also we will be looking at different sources of information’s such as readings, timelines of events, maps, cartoons, photographs and other sources to help us understand more by analyzing and making comments on them.

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Activity 2


If we think of the time since human beings came into existence up until today, it is thousands of years. It would be a very big task to put all these events together to study. Therefore, to make History easy to study Historians have divided History into periods;

History is divided into 4 periods:

  1. Prehistoric times
  2. Ancient history
  3. Medieval History
  4. Modern History

Prehistoric times is from the earliest people to 3000BC. This is the times before written records.

Ancient history is from about 3000BC to the end of the Roman Empire (AD 476)

Medieval History is from the end of the Roman Empire to about 15Th century AD.

Modern History is from the 15th century to today.

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Activity 3


There are many reasons why people study history. In this topic we will look at some of the main reasons why people study History.

History is important because of the following reasons:

  1. History is interesting.
  2. We can study some of the famous people and significant events that have shaped the world to what it is today.
  3. If we are to understand the way we live, the way we think, the way we govern ourselves we must realize that today’s world is the product of the past.
  4. Knowing the past can help us make informed decisions about now and the future.
  5. Once we come to understand other people history we will come to appreciate and understand their way of life and compare and contrast with our own.
  6. Also by understanding our own history one comes to develop a sense of personal integrity, worthiness and identity.
  7. Studying history will help understand current issues and place the in their historical perspective.
  8. Overall the skills used in studying history can be used in many ways throughout our lives.

Quote Study the Past, Live the Present, Create the Futur

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Activity 4


In the study of History, Historians use mainly two types of sources. They are:

  1. Primary Sources - Mainly objects and records of the past.

Primary sources can than be further divided into two kinds. They include:

  1. Non-Literary sources which are mainly objects
    • Non-literary primary sources are many types which give us different information about events and behaviours of past life. They tell us about:
      • Size of people
      • Size of brain
      • Dates
      • Food habits
      • Diseases and medicines
      • Burial customs
      • Age death, reasons for death
      • Daily life
      • Occupations
      • Fashion
      • Trade
      • Wars
      • Level of technology
      • Changes in society
      • Government
      • Entertainment
      • Religious and other beliefs
      • Social life


    • Literary sources which are mainly written records.
  1. Secondary Sources. - Comments made by Historians about the past.

Some examples are given below.

Samples of Ancient Writings on different materials

There are also many literary primary sources and they also provide us with information’s of various kinds. Some involve words and pictures such as coins. However always remember that when there are only words with no picture it is called a document E.g.: A Letter

Below are examples of literary primary sources

A literary source tells us about:  what people did,  how they did it, why they did it,  how they thought felt and believed.

Secondary sources explain  what, where and when things happened,  why they happened  how they happened, what the results were  And how people felt.