P720 Geometrical and Building Drawing

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Practical plane and solid geometry, including inclined and oblique planes.

Orthographic, oblique, axonometric and isometric projections including isometric scale.

Intersection of planes and solids. Interpenetration of solids. Development of surfaces.

Construction of loci and application to practical examples such as tracery or simple mechanism.

Conic sections, cycloid, epicycloid, hypocycloid, involutes and similar curves. The helix and its application to the drawing of screw threads and springs.

Graphical representation of vector quantities. Determination of forces and moments in structures by graphical and numerical methods. Simple three-dimensional structures. Bending moment and shearing forces diagram.

Description of the main historical developments in the construction of buildings and in the building crafts. The form and proportions of buildings: walls, doors, windows, roofs, chimneys, floors and staircases and the relation of these elements to the whole building.

Knowledge of the choice and use of materials and their suitability for particular purposes; their geographical distribution; methods of manufacture of extraction; chemical and physical properties including color.

The principal methods of construction including:

(a) Past and present methods of construction in wood, stone and brick; the functions of the main parts of the structure foundations. Solid construction, framed construction in wood and steel, surface coverings (including weather-boarding, lath-and-plaster, ashlar, brick).

(b) Walls in English and Flemish bonds, up to 1 1/2 bricks and blocks in thickness; hollow walls. Boundary walls in brick, in rubble masonry and in concrete. Damp-resisting courses; chimney breasts and flues. Opening in walls, with brick or stone arches; lintels.

(c) Floors in wood, concrete and hollow tiles and floor finishes.

(d) Roof structures in wood (flat and ridged; roof trusses); barrel, vault, dome, arched roof and metals in concrete. Roof coverings.

(e) Doors, windows and staircases.

Preservation and decoration of buildings.

Preparation of dimensioned scale drawings.