P530 Biology

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Cell Biology

1.1 Cell Structure:

Practical skills in microscopic work.

Investigation of some living material such as an onion epidermis, Spirogyra, cheek cells. Simple staining methods.

1.2 Chromosomes, Mitosis, DNA Structure and Replication

DNA structure and potentiality for replication to be studied with the help of a model. Mitosis to be studied from stained squashed root tip and from prepared slides. Relate it to DNA.

1.3 Chemicals of Life

Show the presence of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in tissues and also the presence of mineral salts.Measure water content of tissues by drying to constant weight. Structure of monosaccharide and condensation into disaccharides, polysaccharides. Hydrolysis. Reducing and non-reducing sugars. Structure of lipids, proteins, enzyme properties and functions. Qualitative and quantitative experiments on enzyme action in relation to temperature, pH, concentration. How enzymes work (lock-and-key hypothesis). Protein synthesis.

1.4 Cell Physiology: Movement in and Out of Cells

Diffusion, osmosis, active transport.

Use of filamentous alga or Tradescantia staminal hairs to study water movement, turgidity, plasmolysis. Use of visking tubing for experiments investigating the different conditions affecting rate of diffusion. Correlate structure and function of cell membrane.

Organization and Maintenance of Life

Reproduction, Growth and Development

Man and His Environment


Factors involved in interdependence. Examples would be:

(a) Supply of water, food, oxygen

(b) Production of carbon dioxide, excreta, sewage

(c) Nutrient cycling.

Effects of Man on the Environment

The effect of population changes. Use and conservation of natural resources, e.g. soil, water. Plant and animal farming, forestry and fisheries.

Ecology Project

Brief mention of guidelines such as:

(1) Type of habitats under study

(2) Sampling methods to be employed

(3) Period of study

(4) Interpretation of field data.