Otago Polytechnic/Educational Development Centre/Frameworks for working with staff

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Frameworks for working with staff

Applications for funding


  • context - students and educator
  • broad goals
  • learning outcomes
  • technology/tools
  • what is the big picture?
  • learners' preferences, learning styles
    • how are they supported?
    • how do they communicate with each other and with educators?
  • how to meet 'best practice'?
  • what is best practice?
  • best practice guidelines

7 principles of learning

by Arthur W. Chickering and Stephen C. Ehrmann. [1]

  1. Good Practice Encourages Contacts Between Students and Faculty
  2. Good Practice Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students
  3. Good Practice Uses Active Learning Techniques
  4. Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback
  5. Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task
  6. Good Practice Communicates High Expectations
  7. Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning

e-Learning Guidelines

NZELG: John Milne and Emily Dimock, Massey University



  • Analyze - analyze learner characteristics, task to be learned, etc.
  • Design - develop learning objectives, choose an instructional approach
  • Develop - create instructional or training materials
  • Implement - deliver or distribute the instructional materials
  • Evaluate - make sure the materials achieved the desired goals

More information here in Wikipedia.
Also refer to the use of ADDIE in the workplace.


  • Objectives
  • Topic/theme
  • Activities
  • Resources
  • Assessment

More information about designing eLearning. [4]

Questions to ask

What are you doing now?   -  Background and rationale

What do you want/need to change?  Aim

  • What is working?
  • What is not working?

Why do you want/need to change?  - Background and Rationale
Who are your learners?  - Background and Rationale

  • What is their learner profile?

What skills/knowledge do you want them to graduate with?- Objective

  • What is the graduate profile?

How will you get them work ready? -  Strategy
How do you get student to engage - currently:

  • with each other?
  • with content?

What can be done to get students to engage

How do you support learners:

  • pastoral?
  • preparation, pre-entry, orientation?

Outcomes of the analysis/actions - becomes Goals for Design

How do we evaluate our performance?

  • improvements
  • effectiveness of the process - EDC, strategies. Could show increase in student pass rates, completions, student statisfaction, enrolments.


use Addie - questions under each section. preparation before the analysis - look at review documents. Paddie - P = preparation - student evaluations, review docs, staff, completions.


  • Sustainability
  • Flexible learning
  • Maori strategic framework


  • access & equity
  • diversity
  • cultural sensitivity
  • sustainability


Content, activities, interaction/communication, assessment.

Add headings and sort questions under them, e.g., How will you get them work ready? - Strategy
Outcomes of the analysis/actions - becomes Goals for Design

How do we evaluate our performance?

  • improvements
    * effectiveness of the process - EDC, strategies. Could show increase in student pass rates, completions, student statisfaction, enrolments.

PADDIE phases

What is the process we need to use for each phase?

What are the questions we need to ask?

The preparation phase is the detective work we do to inform ourselves about the programme or course.

Preparation Phase

Item Process Notes
Initial meeting
Find out what they want?
Make it short and sweet and use it to gauge the existing situation.
Programme document Familiarise yourself with the courses, content and assessments. Philosophy of the programme - strategies etc. Add your observations here - key points.
Programme review notes and outcomes Estimate the areas that are working and those for change. Recruitment rates, completions and pass rates. Information about teaching and learning strategies, assessments etc.

Look at how they are meeting strategic goals. How they rate themselves alongside what it actually happening.
Student evaluations
Look at what works well and areas of concern on a course or resource level.

Student satisfaction
Overview of the students' experiences in the programme.

Branding project
For example, student experience of experiential learning.

Teaching observations
Online and face-to-face class sessions - observe the area of interest.
E.g., observe an Elluminate session or discussion forum or tutorial - if staff member wants more engagement with students.
Staff evaluations
What is working well, and where are the areas for improvement?
Talk to the staff member about these.
Fill in or modify the analysis template
Take the key items from intial meeting and the relevant areas and create the working analysis template.
This should be unique to each area but variations of the same template.

Analysis and Design Phase

  Background and rationale
  1. What are you doing now?
  2. Who are your learners (learner profile)? - entry requirements, enrolment (stair casing etc.)
  3. learning preferences, styles
  4. access, location, entry skills
  5. What do you want/need to change?
  • What is working?
  • What is not working?
  1. Why do you want/need to change?
  2. How do you get student to engage - currently:
  3. with each other?
    with content?
  4. How do you support learners:
  5. pastoral?
    preparation, pre-entry, orientation?

Costs and efficiencies - where can costs be reduced? Including: teaching time, classroom use, development costs, equipment, technology and software costs.

for example, enrollment from Foundation to Nursing means students may be familiar with some of the online technologies.

What is going to be changed.

What are the goals of the programme?

Big picture - may be to promote team work. Embed this in activities.
Considerations - good practice brainstorm

Learning preferences/styles

How will you get students work ready?

What can be done to get students to engage? For example: experiential learning activities, learning which has personal relevance - related to their interests and learning preferences.

What needs to be done to meet the organisational strategies?

Organisational strategies -

  • Flexible learning
  • Maori Strategic Framework
  • Sustainability
  • Digital capability- students and staff
  • Teaching and learning - student-centred learning
  • Other - literacy and numeracy

Learning theory - experiential, mastery, constructivist, problem-based, case-based (real) scenario-based (simulated), social learning, self-paced, reflective, project-base.

blended learning

Proportion - online, f2f, lectures, tutorials, experiential, information delivery, critical thinking, distance, on-campus, synchronous, asynchronous etc.

questions depend on the issues - reasons for change. so the core questions have to be developed from the process the developer undertakes first.

May be big picture brainstorming or you may need to "cut to the chase" and discuss specific areas. This depends on the initial problem

Discuss the proportion of f2f and online or other (e.g. video conferencing, mobile learning) teaching and learning

 The changes to be made.
e.g. rework the content for a blended model. This becomes the goals for the Design phase.

The actions for each objective. The actions for making the changes.


  • What resources are available, e.g., OER, textbook, online, CD, video etc.
  • Where are the gaps if providing flexible learning?


  • How can experiential learning be introduced?
  • How can literacy and numeracy activities be embedded?
  • Based on textbook, workplace, simulations.


  • Strategies for communicating effectively with students to support and facilitate their learning.
  • Link theory and practical.


  • Link to the activities
  • More integration across the programme, e.g., e-portfolios

e.g. upskill staff to use online approaches; investigate formats for presentations. Overlaps in the Design phase.

Look at activities, e.g., experiential and build assessment into them. Then look at content and theory which hangs off the activity. Also link theory through interactions.

Build and re-design  around the activities, e.g., project-based across programme. Scenario-based and link theory to practice. Use e-portfolio assessment which students build towards each year.

The people involved in the actions.

Time, training, research

Operational strategies which are cost-effective, e.g., reduce travel, use synchronous onlie tools, workloads, working as teams, collaboration, energy and environment, discipline specific strategies.

In the analysis phase - processes such as  Review are used. In the  Design phase - get feedback on proposed activities, resources,  etc from staff and students outside the project.
If designing a resource, a storyboard or map of the design is useful.


Item Process Notes
Project Name




Learning Strategies

Activities - Under each learning outcome, decide on one main overarching activity - e.g., catching a baby (birth) ,  create a portfolio - add smaller activities under the main one.

  • What is the main activity?
  • What other activities can be added?


  • What are the main source(s) of content?
  • How will they be developed, re-formatted for flexible learning?

For example, textbook, articles, lectures, presentations, video etc.


How will the learning be facilitated? Synchronous or asynchronous, - self-directed.

For example, synchronous (face-to-face, online - web conference, shared documents, telephone, video conference), or asynchronous (self-directed, activities, discussions, feedback, project-work, portfolio etc.).


  • How will the activities build and contribute to the assessment?
  • How do the assessments meet the learning outcomes?

Break up the learning strategies into four areas: activities, content, communication/interaction, assessment.

An example of how an activity might be developed is shown below.

These match the deliverables.
Use formative evaluation to get feedback on development - lecturers, experts, students.

Examples of development

Creating a Professional Portfolio course

Learning outcome: Critically explore the purpose of a professional portfolio, possible content, and the methods available for creating a record of reflective practice.

Main activity: Investigate examples of portfolios.

  • Synchronous and asynchronous activities will be used.
  • Synchronous - classroom - face-to-face and online - web-conferencing.
    • Examples shown by the lecturer, and guest speakers;
    • Participants work in groups to discuss attributes of the portfolios.
    • Use key questions for them to focus on in the discussion.

Subsidary activities:

  • Talk to individual lecturers about their portfolio (individually or in pairs) - record the interview - audio, video, prepare a reflection on the interview (blog post, journal);
  • Explore open web-based examples - prepare a critique (blog post, journal);
  • Find a research article describing uses of professional portfolios - prepare a brief overview/description and share this with the class (social bookmarking, discussion forum, blog post, email).


The content is the actual examples of portfolios, the critiques prepared by the participants and the articles and the descriptions of them.


  • Activities are facilitated by the lecturer, both face-to-face, online and through feedback. Some aspects are self-paced, and done in pairs and in groups.


All the activities contribute to the final draft portfolio - perhaps in the form of a blog post or as links to files.

  • Interview with a lecturer and reflection about it;
  • Critique of some examples of portfolios; and
  • Description and sharing of the research article.

The formats of the content, and the assessments are preferably digital for ease of sharing.

Social Services

Learning outcome: Use micro skills and distinguish appropriate interpersonal skills when working with people.

Main activity: Critique role play scenario that may crop up in practice.

  • Synchronous and asynchronous activities will be used.
  • Synchronous - classroom - face-to-face and online - web-conferencing.
    • Participants work in groups to plan and role play scenario.
    • Carry out role play and watch other role plays
    • Use key questions for students to focus on in the discussion that follows and their personal reflections.
    • Write, audio or video record a reflection about the process of the role play, and the learning from the role play and watching the other role plays, and use it to identify the interpersonal skills.

Subsidiary activities:

  • Find research articles or text book chapters about communication skills
  • Talk to practitioners about their experiences and tips/tricks for working with people
  • Talk to clients about how they professionals to work with them

Content: The content is the research articles and text books, as well as conversations with professionals and clients.

Communication/Interaction: Activities are facilitated by the lecturer, both face-to-face, online and through feedback.

Assessment: The reflection is the assessment. An assessment rubric will be required for marking.