My Own book/Theories of Learning
Everyone agrees that learning is a complex process involving factors inherent within the learner as well as those that are part of the learning environment. to understand how this process takes place, several theories of learning have been put forth. These theories provide a conceptual framework to explain how learning in a given situation occurs. Theories of learningare generally classified as
1. Behaviorist Theories 2. Cognitivist Theories and 3. Constructivist Theories
Behaviorist theories consider learning as acquisition of behavior as a result of conditioning.Chief among these are Thorndike's Theory of Trial and Error Learning, Classical Conditioning Theory by Pavlov, Theory of Operant Conditioning by B.F Skinner.
A) Trial and Error Learning implies that learning is a result of stamping in the right response and stamping out the wrong response as a result of continued pairing of stimuli and responses. The Theory was a result of E.L Thorndike's experiments and it has yielded some laws of learning.
Law of Readiness: A learner ready to learn will learn more easily than someone not ready to learn. To be able to learn when in a frame of mind that is receptive to learning brings satisfaction. Forcing someone to learn when the person is not ready will cause frustration. Hence creating the right mental set, providing a good link with previously learned matter, proceeding from the known to the unknown are ways to facilitate learning. The physical and mental maturity of the learner need to be considered.Curricula should be set accordance to the maturity of the learner.
Law of Practice: This law emphasizes the need for practice, which helps to consolidate the bond between stimulus and response. More frequent the connections, stronger the bond. Revisions, drill work, practice are all ways to help learning.
Law of Effect: When the learner perceives a satisfying state of affair follows his/her efforts, there is the tendency to repeat the performance. Hence motivating. praise, rewards increase the chances that the performance is repeated. All learning should be that which brings about satisfaction to the learner. Teachers could include interests of the learners in the learning activities so as to induce them to learn.
The Major Theories of Learning mainly stressed in Educational Psychology curriculum can be viewed here