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  • Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

Click here for an introductory video

  • Properties of Pure Substance

Download the Course Material Lecture Notes on Pure Substance

Click hereto access the Website for course


Click here to access the Website for the course


  • Biomass Energy Resource

Biomass is the stored energy in plant and animal tissues that can be used as fuel. It is considered to be among the most vital resources on the earth. Biomass, in addition to providing sustenance for plants and animals, is also used in the majority of human-made materials, including fabrics, medicines, chemicals, and construction materials. The use of biomass as a source of energy dates back to the discovery of fire, when wood was combusted for heat. This chapter will review biomass fuels and technologies that provide us with energy used in various forms, including for the fueling of cars, generating power, and constructing computer components.

  • Nuclear Energy Resource

The heart of a nuclear power plant is the nuclear reactor. The most common type is the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Inside a very strong pressure vessel is an array of fuel assemblies containing uranium rods enriched to about 4 percent U 235, each rod clad in zircaloy sheathing. The reactor contains water, at high pressure to prevent boiling, and also neutron absorbing control rods. The fuel array can be made to produce a nuclear chain reaction, in which U235 nuclei fission or split, releasing heat which is transferred to the water which is circulated to an external circuit. Here heat is transferred to a secondary water circuit where steam is produced which feeds a steam turbine/generator. The reactor power output is controlled by the control rods and also soluble boron poisoning. When loaded with fresh fuel the reactor has excess reactivity which is controlled by these means, during operation the fuel is gradually used up and eventually, at intervals of roughly 2 years, it has to be shut down for fresh fuel to be loaded in place of spent fuel. The spent fuel is highly radioactive and has to be stored under water for safety and for cooling. Click herefor an animated video of the process