## Resources on the internet for Class XI Physics (NCERT)

The following pages show the results of a search on the Internet carried out over a month’s duration. These animations, simulations, virtual experiments and virtual laboratories are directly related to the NCERT syllabus for Class XI and are in keeping with the textbook.

## CLASS XI PHYSICS Textbook for Class XI

### CHAPTER 3: MOTION IN A STRAIGHT LINE

Animations with the user being able to choose from four options of kinds of motion.

Animations dealing with 1-D kinematics with Hot Wheel cars and rockets to illustrate the physics of position, velocity, acceleration, and kinematic graphing.

Simulations under the topic Kinematics: A simulation tracing graphs for velocity, displacement and acceleration with changing time. Students can calculate either velocity or displacement with constant acceleration and check their results. Can be used as a virtual experiment.


This animation shows the relationship between displacement, velocity and acceleration for one dimensional motion.
3.2 Position, path length and displacement

3.3 Average velocity and average speed


Provides simulations that allow a great deal of manipulation of parameters by the user. However, most are in a DOS-type environment.

3.4 Instantaneous velocity and speed

Provides simulations that allow a great deal of manipulation of parameters by the user. However, most are in a DOS-type environment.

3.5 Acceleration

Provides a simulated environment with simultaneous graphical representation for motion in one dimension.

3.6 Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion

Under the topic Kinematics, provides a simulated environment. Takes time to download but is worth the effort. Allows students to choose initial velocity and acceleration on the basis of which displacement and velocity curves are drawn.

3.7 Relative velocity

Provides an animation to demonstrate the concept of relative velocity.

### CHAPTER 4: MOTION IN A PLANE

4.4 Addition and subtraction of vectors: graphical method



Very simple animations showing the addition of vectors

Simulation showing the addition of vectors.

Simulations that allow a great deal of manipulation of parameters by the user. However, most are in a DOS-type environment.

Animation showing the addition of vectors.

4.5 Resolution of vectors


A simulation dealing with the resolution of a vector into its components.

A simulation allowing the user to choose the vectors to be added, with the resultant then being shown both graphically and numerically.

Animation showing addition of vectors; components can be seen by user.

Simulations that allow a great deal of manipulation of parameters by the user. However, most are in a DOS-type environment.
4.7 Multiplication of vectors: the scalar and vector products

4.8 Motion in a plane

Animation showing the concept of motion in a plane.

4.9 Motion in a plane with constant acceleration
4.10 Relative velocity in two dimensions

4.11 Projectile motion













Very simple animations of projectile motion.

QuickTime movies demonstrating the resolution of the velocity vector in case of horizontally and non-horizontally launched projectiles. Take a little time to download. Appropriate software to view these movies can be downloaded from .

Animations showing projectile motion.


Motion simulations marked E to G are graphical animations of projectile motion.

4.12 Uniform circular motion

Simple animation, but similar to Figure 4.22 on pg 81 of the NCERT textbook.

Simple animations demonstrating centripetal force.

### CHAPTER 5: LAWS OF MOTION


This site has animations related to force and Newton’s laws.

5.3 The law of inertia

5.4 Newton’s first law of motion







Very simple animations demonstrating Newton’s first law.

Simulations that allow a great deal of manipulation of parameters by the user. However, most are in a DOS-type environment.

5.5 Newton’s second law of motion


Simulations that allow a great deal of manipulation of parameters by the user. However, most are in a DOS-type environment.

5.6 Newton’s third law of motion

Simulations that allow a great deal of manipulation of parameters by the user. However, most are in a DOS-type environment.

5.7 Conservation of momentum

Simple animations demonstrating the conservation of momentum. Use rule of thumb to get the point across rather than detailed calculations.

5.8 Equilibrium of a particle


A simulation of equilibrium under concurrent forces (pg 101, NCERT textbook)

5.9 Common forces in mechanics

A simulation allowing users to solve a problem similar to the ones in the text. Allows changing of parameters to consolidate learning.

5.10 Circular motion

Animations showing particular cases of circular motion.

5.11 Understanding Newton’s laws of motion: inertial and accelerated frames

5.12 Understanding Newton’s laws of motion: the pseudo forces

5.13 Variable mass problems

5.14 Solving problems in mechanics

===CHAPTER 6: WORK, ENERGY AND POWER===

Animations showing concepts related to work and energy.
6.2 Work-energy theorem

6.3 Work


Animations to explain the concept of work.

Simulation to explain the concept of work

6.4 Kinetic energy

6.5 Work done by a variable force

6.6 Work-energy theorem for a variable force

6.7 Concept of potential energy

6.8 Conservation of mechanical energy









Simple animation showing the relationship between PE, KE and work. Although more suited to a lower level, have been included here since they can help reinforce concepts and correct misconceptions.


A QuickTime movie demonstrating the conservation of mechanical energy. Appropriate software can be downloaded from .

6.9 Potential energy of a spring

6.10 Law of conservation of energy

6.11 Power

6.12 Collisions

Under the topic Dynamics, provides a simulated environment of a 1-D collision. Allows students to choose momenta and k and observe changes after collision. Appropriate for the NCERT syllabus.

Simple animations demonstrating elastic and inelastic collisions.

QuickTime movies showing various cases of collisions. Appropriate software to view these movies can be downloaded from .

Under the option J of Motion simulations provides an animation showing graphical representation of a collision.

### CHAPTER 7: SYSTEMS OF PARTICLES AND ROTATIONAL MOTION

7.2 Rotational equilibrium and the principle of moments

7.3 Centre of gravity

Although not related to the syllabus, this simulation is a playful attempt at helping users understand the concept of centre of gravity.

7.4 Rotational kinetic energy and the moment of inertia of a rigid body

7.5 Newton’s second law for a system of particles

7.6 Angular momentum

7.7 Angular momentum and energy for a system of particles

===CHAPTER 8: GRAVITATION===

8.2 The geocentric model

8.3 Newton’s law of gravitation

Simulations that allow a great deal of manipulation of parameters by the user. However, most are in a DOS-type environment.

8.4 Kepler’s problem: derivation of Kepler’s law

Simulations allowing users to play around with parameters to observe Kepler’s laws.

Simple animation demonstrating Kepler’s second law.

An animation showing Kepler’s second law

An animation showing Kepler’s second law

8.5 Gravitation and weight
8.6 Gravitational potential and potential energy

8.7 Escape speed

A simulation to show escape velocity – change in kinetic energy can also be seen

8.8 Motion of satellites

A simulation ideally suited for this section

8.9 Weightlessness

8.10 Gravitational and inertial mass

===CHAPTER 9: MECHANICS OF SOLIDS===

9.2 Molecular picture of matter

9.3 Interatomic and intermolecular forces

9.4 States of matter

9.5 Solids

9.6 Elasticity: stress and strain

9.7 Applications of elastic behaviour of materials

===CHAPTER 10: MECHANICS OF FLUIDS===


Has animations related to pressure, buoyancy, Pascal’s law and related concepts.

10.2 Pressure

10.3 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle

A simulation to help conceptualize Archimedes’ Principle.

A simulation related to Archimedes’ principle.

10.4 Streamline flow

Can be used to explain the concept of streamline flow.

10.5 Bernoulli’s principle

10.6 Viscosity and Stokes’ law
10.7 Reynolds number

10.8 Surface tension
===CHAPTER 11: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES===

11.2 Ideal gases

Simulation allowing user to change parameters, shows molecular model of an ideal gas.


Simulation of ideal gas, allows user to change parameters.

Simulation of gas molecules with the facility to change volume and temperature

Very simple animation showing the basic concept of an ideal gas.
11.3 Kinetic theory of an ideal gas


Very simple animation showing the basic concept of the kinetic theory of an ideal gas.

11.4 Maxwell’s speed distribution

11.5 Law of equipartition of energy: specific heats of gases

11.6 Mean free path

11.7 Brownian motion


Choose ‘Brownian’ on this page to see a decent simulation of Brownian motion; also a graphical representation.

Simulation of Brownian motion.

===CHAPTER 12: THERMODYNAMICS===

12.2 Thermal equilibrium

12.3 Zeroth law of thermodynamics

12.4 Thermometry

12.5 Absolute temperature

12.6 Ideal gas temperature

12.7 Thermal expansion

12.8 Heat, internal energy and work

12.9 First law of thermodynamics

12.10 Specific heat

12.11 Thermodynamic state variables and equation of state
12.12 Phases and phase diagram

12.13 Thermodynamic processes

An animation dealing with isobaric, isochoric, isothermal and adiabatic processes.

Simulation to help explain concept of thermodynamic processes

12.14 Heat engines

12.15 Refrigerators/heat pumps

12.16 Second law of thermodynamics

12.17 Reversible and irreversible processes

12.18 Carnot engine

Simulation of Carnot Engine – its usefulness is to be determined by the teacher.

Animation showing the Carnot cycle.

Simulation of Carnot engine.

===CHAPTER 13: HEAT TRANSFER===

13.2 Thermal conduction
13.3 Convection
13.5 Newton’s law of cooling
13.6 Kirchoff’s law
13.7 Wien’s displacement law
13.8 Solar constant and the temperature of the sun

### CHAPTER 14: OSCILLATIONS

14.2 Periodic motion


A simulation showing the motion of a pendulum which allows users to change parameters for better understanding.

‘Mass on a spring’: Animation similar to Figure 14.1(a) on pg 313 of the textbook.

Motion simulations H and I: Animations of pendulum motion.

14.3 Simple harmonic motion

Simulations that allow a great deal of manipulation of parameters by the user. However, most are in a DOS-type environment.

Animation ‘dissecting the SHM equation’.

14.4 SHM and uniform circular motion

An animation demonstrating the relationship between SHM and uniform circular motion.

Animation clearly showing the relationship between SHM and circular motion.

14.5 Velocity and acceleration in SHM

‘Motion graph’: Animation similar to Figure 14.14 on pg 319 of the textbook.

14.6 Force law for SHM

14.7 Energy in SHM

‘Energy in a spring system’: animations showing concept of energy in SHM.

14.8 Some systems executing SHM

14.9 Damped SHM
[ http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/semester1/semester1.html]

Animation similar to Figure 14.20 on pg 326 of the textbook.

Simulation similar to Figure 14.20 on pg 326 of the textbook. Can provide a good understanding of the concept.

14.10 Forced oscillations and resonance

The ‘Driven SHM’ option: Animation with facility to choose the driving frequency above, below or above the driving frequency.

14.11 Coupled oscillations

A simulation for coupled oscillations, allowing user to manipulate the position of the masses and seeing the result graphically.

A simulation demonstrating the motion of oscillators coupled by springs. The mass of each load and the stiffness (spring constant) of each spring can be adjusted.

### CHAPTER 15: WAVES

Animations dealing with concepts related to waves.

15.1 Introduction

A simple animation showing longitudinal waves, similar to Fig 15.1 of the textbook.

Animations showing more examples.

15.2 Transverse and longitudinal waves

A useful animation showing the motion of both transverse and longitudinal waves. Also, what makes this animation useful is that red markers representing particles are also shown moving – a good way to understand what exactly these waves are.

15.3 Displacement relation in a progressive wave

15.4 Speed of a traveling wave

Although slightly advanced, can be used by teacher to help students conceptualize the wave motion associated with a stretched string.

15.5 Principle of superposition of waves


A simulation demonstrating the principle of superposition of waves.

A simulation demonstrating the principle of superposition of waves.

A simulation demonstrating the superposition of waves

15.6 Interference of waves


A simulation demonstrating the principle of superposition of waves.

15.7 Reflection of waves

Simple animation, similar to Figure 15.14 on pg 357 of the textbook.

Simple animation which can be used to demonstrate Figure 15.15 of the textbook.

Simple animations which can be used to demonstrate Figure 15.16 of the textbook.

Titled ‘Stationary waves’, this animation shows standing waves.

Simulation of standing waves
15.8 Beats
15.9 The Doppler effect





An animation showing Doppler effect and shock wave associated with a moving point source.

Extremely simple animations showing various situations where the Doppler effect can be observed. Has a film showing an aircraft breaking the sound barrier but need high internet access speed to download it.


A simulation showing the Doppler effect due to a moving source.