Human health programme/Reproductive health

From WikiEducator
Jump to: navigation, search

According to world health organisation [WHO] a total well being in all aspects of reproduction ie.physical , emotional,behavioraland social physically and functionally normal reproductive organs and normal emotional and behavioral interactions among them in sex realated aspects might be called reproductive health 


  • lndia was amongst the first countries in the world to intiate action plans and programmes at national level 
  • lndia start family planing in 1951

Reproductive and child health care (RCH) programmes 

  • To creat awareness among people
  • providing facilities
  • creating awareness among people by adio visual and print media about reproduction
  • discourage children from believing in myths and having misconceptions about sex related aspects
  • proper information about reproductive organs adolescence and hyginic sexual practices
  • information about sexualy transmitted diseases (STD),AIDS
  • educating people,especially fertilr couples
  • informations about birth control options
  • care of pregnent mothers 
  • post natal care of mother 
  • equal importence to male and female child
  • awareness of problem due to uncontrolled population
  • inform about social evils like sex abuse and sex related crimes


The world population which was around 2 billion
(2000 million) in 1900 rocketed to about 6 billions by 2000. A similar
trend was observed in India too. Our population which was approximately
350 million at the time of our independence reached close to the billion
mark by 2000 and crossed 1 billion in May 2000. That means, every
sixth person in the world is an Indian. A rapid decline in death rate,
maternal mortality rate (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) as
well as an increase in number of people in reproducible age are probable
reasons for this. Through our RCH programmes, though we could bring
down the population growth rate, it was only marginal. According to the
2001 census report, the population growth rate was still around 1.7 per
cent, i.e., 17/1000/year, a rate at which our population could double in
33 years. Such an alarming growth rate could lead to an absolute scarcity
of even the basic requirements, i.e., food, shelter and clothing, in spite of
significant progress made in those areas. Therefore, the government was
forced to take up serious measures to check this population growth rate.


  • we two, our two
  • Statutory raising of marriageable age of the female to 18 years and that of males to 21 years
  • contraceptive methods

contraceptive methods =

ideal contraceptive
  • user-friendly
  • easily available
  • effective
  • reversible with no or least side-effects

Natural methods

Natural methods work on the principle of avoiding chances of ovum
and sperms meeting. Periodic abstinence is one such method in which
the couples avoid or abstain from coitus from day 10 to 17 of the menstrual
cycle when ovulation could be expected. As chances of fertilisation are very high during this period, it is called the fertile period. Therefore, by abstaining from coitus during this period, conception could be prevented.
Withdrawal or coitus interruptus is another method in which the male
partner withdraws his penis from the vagina just before ejaculation so as
to avoid insemination Lactational amenorrhea (absence of
menstruation) method is based on the fact that ovulation
and therefore the cycle do not occur during the period of
intense lactation following parturition. Therefore, as long
as the mother breast-feeds the child fully, chances of
conception are almost nil. However, this method has been
reported to be effective only upto a maximum period of six
months following parturition. As no medicines or devices
are used in these methods, side effects are almost nil.
Chances of failure, though, of this method are also high.

Barrier methods

In barrier methods, ovum and sperms are prevented
from physically meeting with the help of barriers. Such
methods are available for both males and females.
Condoms (Figure 4.1 a, b) are barriers made of thin rubber/latex sheath that are used to cover  the penis in the

male or vagina and cervix in the female, just before coitus so that
the ejaculated semen would not enter into the female
reproductive tract. This can prevent conception. ‘Nirodh’ is
a popular brand of condom for the male. Use of condoms
has increased in recent years due to its additional benefit of
protecting the user from contracting STDs and AIDS. Both
the male and the female condoms are disposable, can be
self-inserted and thereby gives privacy to the user.
Diaphragms, cervical caps and vaults are also barriers
made of rubber that are inserted into the female reproductive
tract to cover the cervix during coitus. They prevent
conception by blocking the entry of sperms through the
cervix. They are reusable. Spermicidal creams, jellies and
foams are usually used alongwith these barriers to increase
their contraceptive efficiency.