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On completion of the topic you will be able to
  1. Design a training programme
  2. Adapt suitable approach for the training programme
  3. Select appropriate content and target group
  4. Analyse the advantages and disadvantages of various types of training programme
  5. Submit a proposal for a training programme complete in all respects.
  6. Determine the objectives of a training programme and write it in behavioural terms
  7. Prepare the activities with suitable checklists derived from written material provided here.
  8. Communicate effectively with Resource persons and target groups
  9. Ensure proper organization of programme arranged in suitable sequencing
  10. Design suitable evaluation design so that the out come of evaluation and monitoring is the basis for re organization to improve


The topic deals with designing and Management of a training programme. It covers different training approaches and their basis. It deals with the purpose of training and various types of training and their characteristics. The next unit mentions writing a proposal for training programme and various aspects to be included in preparing a training proposal. It mentions several components like venue, content to get group, methodology evaluation, utilization of resources, several other aspects related to them. The next unit deals with preparatory activities under two headings of communication and organization monitoring the details of coverage’s to be incorporated in the format of communication and organization of a training programme.


Designing a training programme is the next logical step after the training objectives are formulated. The programme has to be designed to achieve the objectives that have been decided upon. The programme should be formulated in a manner that will clearly show the three broad areas of concern: the knowledge base, performance skills and attitudes depending mainly, on the function of each training programme, and the type of people attending it, different types of training programmes should be designed to meet the specific needs of various groups. It is not possible to execute one standard programme for all types of objective for all types people, and expect it to be effective at the same time. In fact, it is not possible to design such a training programme for effectiveness, specific training activities need to be formulated to ensure that the programme is relevant to a particular situation. More- over, an analysis of the job to be performed provided the basic information for the design of a specific training activity.

The approaches to Training

There is no training method that could be called the ‘ BEST’ to suit different training situations. Each training method has its strength and limitations. The desirability of a particular training method depends an a number of factors:

  1. The nature of a specific instructional objective
  2. Situation in which the teaching learning takes place.
  3. The expected role of the learner in the training process.
  4. The extent of support available in terms of learning materials and facilities.
  5. The level of familiarity and mastery of various methods on the part of the trainer.
  6. Failures in implementing a training programme largely depend upon the non- familiarity of various methods by the trainer. Quite often lack of knowledge of different training methods results in the use of one single method (for instance lecture method) for all types of training.

Training approaches could be broadly divided into:

(1) Learner directed

(2) Message directed

(3) Participatory- learner and trainer. In a participatory approach, where both learner and trainer have active roles to play, the training designer has to draw up a list of specific activities for the proper management of the training programme.

Training Management

Management of a training programme starts not during the training, but much before the training programme -from the preparatory stage and continuing through out the training period, monitoring every aspect of training like time management, personnel management, budget -management and facilities management. This calls for vigorous course designing.

In a participatory situation, there is an interaction of trainers and trainees in the teaching -learning situation. (The present learner becomes the future trainer in subsequent programmes.) An effective interaction will help the trainees to cope with new situations when they have to play the role of a trainer. The dynamics of this interaction could play a decisive role in evaluating the effectiveness of the training programme.

Evaluation of a training Programme is a process which is continuous and acts as a feed back for removing the bottle necks/failures in the implementation of the programme. It serves the purpose of both as diagnosis and decision making and serves the purpose of objective of the training.

The purpose of training basically is to bring about learning leading to performance in the work situation properly conducted training programmes not only aim to improve performance, but also to increase the level of motivation and confidence in the trainee. Through a series of learning activities with in the training programme, the trainee shows understanding of the tasks to be performed, increase, his/her efficiency, develops mastery of skills. There is a behavioural change, which will be reflected, in a new situation, i.e., his/her workplace.

What are Various Types of Training?

If training is deemed a means to modification of behaviour in the desired direction. It is a strategy of behavior modification. There are various types of training, which can be used singly or in combination, depending upon the situation and available facilities.

They are :

   1. 	Face to Face training 
   2. 	Mobile Training 
   3. 	Peer Training 
   4. 	Hierarchical Training (phased Training) 
   5. 	Integrated Training (Linked Training) 
   6. 	Self -learning (based on modules/training packages) 
   7. 	Distance Training
   8. 	Field operational Training 
   9. 	Internship and attachment 
  10. 	Eclectic Training.

1. Face-to-face training

This is the most commonly used training strategy by almost every country. Its main weakness is that its coverage is small because of time and financial constraints. Secondly it is also expensive. If the training is monitored and implemented properly, it could be effective. However it is essential to think of other strategies to cover large groups like primary school teachers.

2. Mobile training

This strategy involves establishment of mobile teams of trained competent and highly experienced teachers, administrators and supervisors, who can move from place to place and conduct training programmes for teachers in their school environment in designated Training Centres. The size of the team varies with the number of teachers to be trained. They are also to be provided with training packages including training manual, audio-visual aids and other instrumental materials. The training could be organized during vacations or during weekends if it is a short -programme, as may be convenient to the teachers and feasibility in a particular area.

3. Peer training

This is a situation in which both the trainer and trainee are at the same level because they are peers. In this strategy, the principles and subject leads are given in face to face training. The trainers are selected from the school or school complex itself from among the teachers. They are provided with a complete set of training materials and it is their responsibility to train the other teachers. Each school sets it own schedule of training teachers. The teachers, who play the role of trainers, visit the school as a team and provide on the spot the required assistance, guidance as well as evaluation of the training programme. This strategy is cost-effective and has better coverage in terms of the number of teachers to be trained. But the effectiveness of this strategy depends on the administrative support, particularly of the heads of the school, where the teachers conduct the training programmes for their peers.

4. Hierarchical training

In this method there is a step-wise training. The project personnel train a group of specialists or masters at the national level as key resource persons. They in turn train state level resource persons like principals, Teacher Educators, College Professors and others; they in turn are made responsible to train teachers at the District level; from there the training is passed on to the Taluk or block level; then to the teacher in the village. In this strategy the teacher, the main target of training is at the lower end as recipient of what is passed on from the top. The effectiveness of this method depends on closer interaction and cooperation between the personnel involved in training at each level, the degree of training imparted at each level, and competence of trainers at each level. Again by the time the training package reaches the teacher in the village update information in many areas may be come essential.

5. Integrated or linked training

In this type of training a particular subject area is built into the in-service training activities, and thus integrated in the subject itself For example, gender sensitization as a subject area can be integrated in the language training itself In that case, no additional time or expenses are involved for a special area, in terms of travel expenses of teachers for a training programme. However time available for sustained training to integrate a special subject may be insufficient. This strategy can be used as a supplement to other training programmes.

5. Self-learning module

The teachers can equip themselves, with new knowledge and new skills in various subject areas when they have easy access to good self-learning packages. This again depends on the intrinsic motivation of the teacher and the basic competence level of the teacher. The modules need to be highly structured. Usually self learning packages are prepared by a committee of experts.

6. Distance Training

Distance Training is that kind of training where in there is considerable physical distance between the Trainer and the trainee. Transaction can take the place in a number of ways. Print material, Radio, Telephone, T.V., Satellite based, Computer etc.

(a) Correspondence Training

Usually printed material is designed to facilitate self-instruction. Information is graded and presented in small steps and self-check exercises are included at the end of an unit and at the end of the chapter as well. The objectives and the content, of the chapter are focussed in the beginning. The trainees submit the assignments and interact with the trainee through letters or telephone. The advantage is, it is paced to the learner’s speed. [This entire package format is in SIM mode]

(b) Educational broadcast

The information to be transacted is broadcast, through on appropriate medium-drama-reaction, lecture-story-a combination two medium and so on. The interaction is by answering the queries received: The major advantage is it can have wider reach. One can copy the broadcast on an audiocassette and listen repeatedly for clarification.

(c) Telecast

Similar to Education broadcast, telecast has a visual impact though it has the advantage, visual access is a problem.

(d) Satellite based Training

In a satellite based training, the facilities are one way video and two-way audio; thus interaction between the trainer and trainee is facilitated. The Resource persons deliver the course from a studio, with the help of visuals (Transparencies, flip charts/poster/picture/photo/computer, video-cassette, slides etc). All the receiving centres, facilitators are present to strengthen the transaction from the centre. Training can be imparted simultaneously to a large group is the major advantage.

When multi user-Transponder is provided, then teleconferencing is possible. This will have the advantage of Video interaction. This helps the trainer, trainee and the third group of trainee currently not interacting but benefiting from the visual interaction.

8. Field operational Training

This strategy is largely used for the training of but of school key personnel. The needs of the community are taken into consideration for developing materials and designing the training programme. Thus it is based on participatory approach. This method is effective only in some areas.

9. Internship and attachment

This strategy is similar to training on probation. The teacher is attached to a school as apart of training for about two to three months and observes the working of the organization in the real situation and teacher under the guidance of a senior teacher and learns by experience and self study. Only a small percentage could be trained this way without disturbing the functioning of the organization.

10. Eclectic training

This is basically a combination of all the above training strategies for different categories of personnel: The main categories of personnel are:

(i) Administration and policy makers

(ii) Resource persons for trainers, teachers and field workers.

Later the number of persons to be trained is small and manageable. The training intensive and can be done in a face-to-face strategy in the case of administrators and policy makers.

But in the case of teacher and field workers, where the number is large the training can be through a combination of mobile training, peer training, hierarchical training and integrated training. Further the training of the teacher and field workers can be supplemented by self-learning modules, distance training by post and also through the media of Radio and ETV.

How to select a training programme?

The training programme should be need-based. The need of the teacher in the different subject areas and also the need of the school - the target group is the most important factor in selecting the type.

Designing and implementation

After selecting a need-based training programme it should be implemented. The implementation starts from the very beginning by communicating with the target group and inservice persons and also making the necessary preparation from all aspects including the activities to be introduced during the training session.


A training programme is undertaken only after the proposal for conducting a Training programme is approved by competent authority and funds are allocated. In order to give consent to the proposal, the competent authorities have to examine the proposal from various points of view. Hence it is desirable that the proposal for a training programme is written in such a way that it gives all the relevant details in the prescribed format.

How to write a proposal for a training programme?

The proposal must contain the following aspects:

    1. Objective/purpose 
    2. Content/ curriculum 
    3. Duration 
    4. Target group 
    5. Trainers for the programme 
    6. Venue 
    7. Time table 
    8. Monitoring & evaluation of programme at the venue in a nutshell

Specifying Objectives / Purpose of a Training Programme:

Educational system must have a “MISSION”. The very establishment of DIET is with the objective of Quality Improvement in Education at elementary level. This is to be achieved by intensive Teacher Training Programmes. So, what is the “MISSION” for a DIET? Mere static statements will not go a long way. Things will not change with out dynamism in the very approach to Teacher Training.

“MISSION” statements should be translated into ‘ACTION’. It is essential to set objectives or goals, which are attainable over a specific time. The time frame in setting goals is very important. We want to bring social change through education. Education is the most important parameter in this march towards social change and improvement of quality of life of masses. Towards this, the objectives on the proposal for a training programme should be spelt. That the

objectives should be:

  1. Specific and concrete
  2. Understandable
  3. Attainable
  4. Flexible

Thus, while writing a training proposal, it is necessary that problems at the grass root level are identified and listed in specific terms.

The Content / Curriculum of a Training Programme:

Objectives are to be attained within a specific time through transaction of certain identified content, which aims to enrich the knowledge of the teacher, expose him/ her to the latest techniques effective in teaching learning transaction, to give the teacher the glimpses of the impact of technological revolution in the field of education. So the content of the Training

Programme should include:

(a) Enrichment techniques of knowledge by giving relevant information

(b) Effective techniques of teaching - learning so that the teacher develops intrinsic motivation “to grow” as a teacher

(c) Application of knowledge in various life situations inspiration from the environment

(d) Enhance comprehension through interaction during training

(e) Exposure to additional reading material, which are relevant for primary level

{f) Use of technology in Education, through audio-visual technique quiz programme, computer etc. audio-video cassettes, and also through exhibition, field tapes.

Care should be taken to see that the content of the training programme is in tune with the objective of the training programme.

The Duration of the training programme

After having decided the content of the programme, the next step is to decide the duration of the training programme. This temporal dimension should be in tune with the broad objectives specified and also in tune with the budgetary allocation. The duration of training programmes changes with the objectives and also with the availability of funds and also on the extent of preparation made for conduct of the training programme.



   (A) Long-term coverage of the entire teacher population at the elementary level in district 
   (B) Short-term training programmes, which vary according to the dictates of the funding agencies

A Training proposals to be funded by other agencies usually have the target group, as required by the specific agencies, which give funds to conduct the programme, they are mainly :

(i) SOPT training only for the OBB teachers in the relevant phases of recruitment

(ii) Improvement of performance in schools with low percentage student as per the directions of Examination Board.

(iii) Transaction of activities resulting in child-centered learning as proposed in DPEP programmes, etc.

Quite often, the training proposal to be written, to use some amount of budget, which is made available. In that case the number of participants-in the target group is to be fixed as per the norms of funding agencies/or funds available.

Trainers (Resource persons) in a Training Programme:

In order to conduct a training programme, it is extremely important to identify suitable persons for imparting the content and interaction with the trainers in an effective manner . Trainers could be the staff room the DIET itself or Resource persons outside the DIET. The training proposal must indicate how many resource persons outside the DIET are required. This again depends upon the nature of training programme, the specific content area where specialization is required.

Directory of Resource Persons

Towards this it is essential to prepare a directory of resource persons with their names, permanent address, areas of specialization and other relevant details so that they can be easily contacted, when required, for the training programmes .The names and addresses of the trainees (participants) for the training programme can be got from the Data bank of DIET. Decisions about the Resource persons at the time of writing proposal will enable the programmer to give a realistic estimate of the TA & DA and renumeration towards resource persons in the proposal.

The Venue

Training programmer can be conducted at DIET, which is fully equipped and also has facilities for lodging and boarding. Training programme may also be conducted at places away from DIET, say Taluk Head Quarters, in “Shikshak Bhavan’s” or Community Halls. In such instances, the following aspects are to be taken into account:

(i) The approachability of the venue.

(ii) Facilitiesfor boarding and lodging.

(iii) Availability of training equipment like OHP, videocassette player, computer (optional) along with power source.

(iv) Clean surroundings with toilet facilities and drinking water.

(v) Alternative arrangements, in case there is failure of electricity.

The information circular to the trainees attending the training programme should also contain a diagram to reach the venue, if the venue is not a familiar place. This will ensure that the participants reach the ‘venue’ on time even on the first day.

The Time-Table

Time table is a comprehensive aspect of planning of the entire course. It indicates the time required for each activity in a training programme, so that there is optional use of time for various activities of the training programme and no essential activity is omitted because of shortage of time. In essence, timetable is a watchdog of Training activities. Time table is a part of planning of temporal dimension. Time table spreads out the activities among the trainer in such a way that they are prepared to play their roles effectively. The break periods in between academic activities like dimensions, writing, or interacting with the trainer, which take care of coffee/tea/lunch break out the monotony and keep the energy level of the participants high.

Flexibility in timetable, is it necessary?

Sometimes it becomes essential to modify a timetable already formulated. The reasons may be: (1) Failure of electricity or equipment.

(2) Absence of the resource person/persons who are highly essential for the programme

(3) Need to adopt alternate strategies of transaction Timetable and curricular transaction

In a programme, where the objective is to review curricular/or revision of textbook with reference to introduction of a new parameter or dimension related to say, gender sensitization or environmental protection or population control. A more or less rigid timetable may become necessary. This is because each subtopic has to be transacted in a sequential manner, so that gaps are not created, which may lead to correction later on, say after a revised textbook is printed.

As an alternate strategy one may have open-end timetable...

What is an open-ended Timetable?

An open-ended Timetable is one where there the transaction is not hour-to-hour basis (daily programme) but is day-to-day basis. In such a programme, the group may consist of experts in the field of curriculum design and they may stay at one venue with the requisite facilities and devote even evening session or after dinner sessions to complete the work with interaction on various important aspects. Such curricular transaction can be with open-ended timetable.

What are the uses of a Timetable?

A timetable enables the trainees/Trainers. (i) to attend the training session with preparation so that the participation is most effective.

(ii) To delimit the discussion/speech in a given time frame, so that other aspects of the programme are not disturbed.

(iii) To be punctual and plan his/her day

(iv) To complete the work allotted within the time-frame

(v) To optimally use the time with out wasting any time in unnecessary activities during the programme.

Monitoring and Evaluation is an implied aspect of a Training Proposal, which is dealt out extensively....

However during a training programme also evaluation is done about the training programme how effective it was or how congenial the interactive sessions were etc. by the participants at the end of the programme. Either at the end of the day or at the end of the programme. This help as a feedback to the trainer for improving his/her performance for the subsequent programmes.

Proforma for Proposal of a Training Programme

Preparatory activities for starting a training course

Preparation for a training programme is an important aspect of monitoring. Without adequate preparation no training programme should be Educated. The preparation should be related to the objectives and steps should be diligently followed. This can be broadly divided into areas:

    1. Communication 
    2. Organization

Communication as the first step, relates to (Target group)

   (i) Communication with the participants 
  (ii) Communication with the Resource persons
 (iii) Collection of material from outside agencies. 

Communication letters to participants, resource persons and guest lecture should clearly state the objectives of the programme, deviation of programme, the venue etc. a sample letter is provided.


  1. Preparation at the Venue
  2. Preparation of the academic activities
  3. Aspects

Organization refers the various preparations in relation to the academic materials required like OHP; preparation at the venue display use of materials, conduction of activities as part of the programme, fitting up of various Proforma like TA & DA etc and lastly evaluation of the programme for a feed back to the programmers

1. Communication to Target Group

Course design starts with the target group. The target group is spelt out in the proposal itself and is in tune with the objectives. The target group is selected from the Data bank of DIET as per specifications. We can call them participants in the training programme.

  1. The participants should be are invited to actively participate in such and such a programme. The venue, duration and timings and the objectives of the programme, so that they are oriented about the programme. In case it is necessary, they may even be asked to bring some data of their school, relevant to the programme.
  2. It is also essential to mention how they can reach the venue from the bus stand / railway station and that they should report the previous, say in case the programme starts right from 8.00 a.m. much depends on the train/bus timings. In case it is feasible, direction to reach the venue could be also enclosed as a sketch.
  3. Another aspect of communication is in relation to the facilitates provided like lodging, boarding and the probable expenses towards this.
  4. If the participants have to stay for a number of day outside their home, the climatic conditions of the venue and what they should carry with them as part of their clothes.
  5. Lastly they should be communicated about the T.A, and D.A. they are entitled and that they should bring the photocopy of the ticket, which gives the details about their travel expenses.

2. Communication to Resource Persons:

The second important aspect of the DIET of course design is in relation to communication with resource persons.

Resource persons could be from the DIET itself or from outside DIET. A letter of communication must reach them before the actual commencing of the Training programme. The time dimension is very important. There should be enough time to book his/ her train/ bus reservation. Once the resource person accepts the invitation role of a “resource”. The communication letter inviting resource person to an educational programme should contain the following information:

  1. Objectives of the training programme or main objectives.
  2. Venue, duration and timings.
  3. Target Group: their knowledge level, back ground experience
  4. Topic assigned to the Resource person/ DIET staff.
  5. Contents of topic covered before the topic assigned to resource person/ DIET staff.
  6. Request for a brief write-up, for introducing him/ her to the participants for effective interaction.
  7. Eligibility of remuneration. TA/ DA and facilities to be provided (whether Prof/ Director / Retd. / Eligible for air travel etc.)
  8. Requesting confirmation of willingness to participate and time availability
  9. TA & DA payment as per rules of funding authority
  10. The climatic conditions of venue for necessary preparation for travelling.

Preparation at the venue

After that preparation, in relation to participants, Resource persons and guest lecturers and organizations one has to come down to the preparation of the venue. At the venue they could be broadly divided into these categories:

  (A) 	Daily activities related to logistics.

  (B) 	Activities related to content / Methodology/ quality of transaction..

  (C) 	Other activities 

Note : Read “Chiguru” and “Manthana” Training manuals of DPEP.

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1. Write down the objectives and suitable training strategy to be followed for conducting an in service training for teachers handling mathematics in III standard

2. 200 teachers in your district have to be trained in one month. They need orientation in core subjects. What are the strategies you will adopt?

The proposal should include

(1) Objectives 2) Contents of the programme (3) Duration (4) Target group and number (5) Time table (6) Resource personnel (7) Budget evaluation (8) Facilities

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* Training programme needs a design that goes with its objectives
  • The type of training schedule must be appropriate to the achievement of the objective
  • A proposal has to be prepared and submitted to the appropriate authorities for approval
  • The proposal must spell out the objectives, content, target group, deviation, venue, time table, and the methods of monitoring and evaluation
  • Thorough preparation has to be made before the commencement of the programme.