Content management

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"A Content Management System is a distributed software system which treats information in a
granular way, enabling the access, versioning, and dynamic assembly of pieces of information,
named contents, such as diagrams, tables, images, or pieces of text." [3]

The main features of content management systems include collecting, managing and publishing [5] as described below. • Collecting involves acquiring information from various sources. • Managing is the storage of data in a repository. • Publishing so that the users retrieve and extract the useful information as and when required.

Content search: Content search is used to search and retrieve information as fast as possible. It is a field based and text based search. A field based search looks at specified content fields such as titles, keywords, description and others. A text based search looks at the actual text in the content. A combined search supports fields and uses Boolean expressions for text. A common combined search method is Lucene which is developed by Apache Software Foundation [1].

Content search limitations: In spite of having rich support for field and text expressions, content search appears to have difficulty in expressing the exact meaning of a request. To illustrate this point, let us consider an example of a search request which looks for “a list of references about ontology in a course module named Future Directions”. This query looks for words and phrases such as reference, ontology, “course module” and “Future Directions”. This searches for all content documents containing the individual words and phrases somewhere in the text. This will unfortunately return unrelated documents to the query because what are expected are only reference-type documents which belong to the course module named ‘Future Directions’[1].

Another limitation is that the data represented in XML supports term containment but not term relationships. Ontology acts as a solution for the above mentioned limitations

1) Apache Lucene (2005), Lucene Performance Benchmarks, URL:

3) Canfora G. et al. (2002), Content2P: A peer-to-peer content management system, Proceedings of the 26 th; Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC’02), IEEE

5) Gruber T. (1993), A translation approach to portable ontology specifications, Knowledge Acquisition 5:199-220