Competencies in developing original software related to classroom

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2. Definitions of software

3. Introduction to Software Development


5. Types of Software

6. Academic Software - Educational Software


A = ===Supervisor - Level Competencies

B ====Executive – Level Competencies

C ====Middle Management – Level Competencies



Software is that part of a computer which makes it work . without proper software a computer is like a useless box. A school needs to buy several types of software and the following section discusses some of the important issues involved in choosing it.

== Definitions of software ==

1. (computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory; "the market for software is expected to expand"

2. Computer software, or just software is a general term primarily used for digitally stored data such as computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by computers. ... en. 3. Software is a 1982 cyberpunk science fiction novel written by Rudy Rucker. It won the first Philip K. Dick Award in 1983. The novel is the first book in Rucker's Ware Tetralogy, and was followed by a sequel, Wetware, in 1988.

4. In development cooperation jargon, "software" and "hardware" refer to the different aspects of technology transfer. ...

5. Software is Grace Slick's 1984 album. This album was recorded after she had re-joined Jefferson Starship. After working on this album, Peter Wolf would go on to contribute to Jefferson Starship's 1984 album, Nuclear Furniture. A music video was made for the single "All the Machines".

6. Encoded computer instructions, usually modifiable (unless stored in some form of unalterable memory such as ROM). Compare hardware

7. the programs or other "instructions" that a computer needs to perform specific tasks. Examples of software include word processors, e-mail clients, web browsers, video games, spreadsheets, accounting tools and operating systems.

8. is any data, information, designs, or ideas, which were, are, or will become, computer files, programs, systems of programs, or related input or output data. D 9. means the software that is used to provide the Service; 10. 11. The digital instructions executed by the computer in RAM. They may act on the hardware that is attached to the computer. Examples would be a BASIC or Pascal program, an assembly language routine to read a clock, or a disk operating system. ...

12. a type of programme that is used to operate a computer or other device.D 13. includes a combination of software and associated data.

14. GIS software provides the functions and tools needed to store, analyze, and display geographic information. A review of the key GIS software subsystems is provided aboved.

Introduction to Software Development

Software development is a complicated process. It requires careful planning and execution to meet the goals. Sometimes a developer must react quickly and aggressively to meet ever changing market demands. Maintaining software quality hinders fast-paced software devel- opment, as many testing cycles are necessary to ensure quality products. This chapter provides an introduction to the software development pro- cess. As you will learn, there are many stages of any software develop- ment project. A commercial software product is usually derived from market demands. Sales and marketing people have first-hand knowledge of their customers’ requirements. Based upon these market requirements, senior software developers create an architecture for the products along with functional and design specifications. Then the development process starts. After the initial development phase, software testing begins, and many times it is done in parallel with the development process. Documen- tation is also part of the development process because a product cannot be brought to market without manuals. Once development and testing are done, the software is released and the support cycle begins. This phase may include bug fixes and new releases. After reading this chapter, you should understand how software develop- ment is done and the components of a software development system.


1. Hardware Platform

2. Operating System

3. Editors

4. Compilers and Assemblers

5. Debuggers

6. Version Control Systems

7. E-mail and Collaboration

8. X-Windows

' Types of Software'

Programming Software:

This is one of the most commonly known and popularly used forms of computer software. These software come in forms of tools that assist a programmer in writing computer programs. Computer programs are sets of logical instructions that make a computer system perform certain tasks. The tools that help the programmers in instructing a computer system include text editors, compilers and interpreters.

System Software:

It helps in running the computer hardware and the computer system. System software is a collection of operating systems; devise drivers, servers, windowing systems and utilities. System software helps an application programmer in abstracting away from hardware, memory and other internal complexities of a computer.

Application Software:

It enables the end users to accomplish certain specific tasks. Business software, databases and educational software are some forms of application software. Different word processors, which are dedicated for specialized tasks to be performed by the user, are other examples of application software.

'Utility Software:'

Also known as service routine, utility software helps in the management of computer hardware and application software. It performs a small range of tasks. Disk defragmenters, systems utilities and virus scanners are some of the typical examples.

'Academic Software - Educational Software'

Academic software is the result of dedicated efforts made by the various Boards and Ministries of education and school district administrative offices. The software is created to further the audio visual upgradation in education and make learning an enjoyable and fun filled experience. The academic arena is experiencing change world wide. The wireless technology has enhanced the approach towards academics too and it won’t be before long that lap tops totally replace text books and the teacher is replaced by a super computer. Nothing is impossible. The quest remains the same – quenching the thirst for information. The question of importance of the physical presence of the human teacher has receded into the background. Now the focus is on ‘what is imparted’ and ‘how quickly’, and not ‘by whom’? The dedicated academic software or educational software programs are legally licensed programs that are easily accessible via a myriad of online and offline resources.

Academic software or educational software is identical to the commercial based applications, functionally. The versatility and structure varies only in the sense of field restriction in both. While the former focuses on curriculum, the latter delves into the routine functions and operations of a business enterprise. Academic software is designed to meet special requirements of the student and faculty community. It is not restricted to e-learning and can be applied to the adopted policies of any brick and mortar school and college too. The software enables the student to optimize the availability of ‘audio-visual’ and maintain information for replication at a later stage.

It is easy to tire of classroom projects and presentations, especially if they have to be hand made or manually researched. The academic software or educational software applications not only enable you to access information at a click on the mouse, but also gets you credit for a very professional-looking project report. All you need is connectivity and the basic knowledge of application of the technology. Academic software is marketed by dedicated marketing and merchandising media companies. The endeavor is focused on the education community. This includes the students, teachers and administrators of the various colleges and schools.

The software packages for the online approach and experience are products from software and hardware manufacturers such as Microsoft, Adobe, Dell, Sony, Macromedia and Apple, to name a few. Bona fide education based clientele are awarded great discounts on every purchase and regular updates. The market functions within a domain of knowledge that is designed within the prescribed linear frame work and a network of relationships between educationists and the manufacturers of the academic software or educational software. The package designs are targeted to meet the criteria specified by the customers, students, parents, and educators. The experience and superior service backs up the effort to successfully access the academic oriented products as smoothly as possible.


Level wise list of Competencies which can be better developed through means other than training programmes

Supervisor - Level Competencies

1) Positive Attitude

Is positive in his outlook towards work and the environment in general. Enthusiastic in accepting new initiatives / challenges and demonstrates a feeling of optimism and energy.

2) Functional Knowledge

Has a good grasp of his job and related processes. Can evaluate job related information for its practical application.

3) Interpersonal Skills

Involves others, interacts effectively and is a committed team member. Understands others and is able to deal with them effectively. Shares information and ideas and seeks to resolve conflicts.

4) Self Empowerment

Is confident, decisive and action-oriented. Assumes ownership and responsibility for the job. Is committed, resilient and energetic and has a clear sense of what needs to be done.

5) Analytical Ability

Is able to identify and diagnose key issues, seek relevant information, draw accurate conclusions / inferences in order to find the appropriate solution.

6) Adaptability

Is open and adapts to different situations quickly. Accepts change willingly.

7) Improvement Orientation

Seeks, suggests and implements new ideas for continuous improvements. Can think, think, think of innovative (think out of box), multiple options.

Executive – Level Competencies

1) Planning & Organizing / Self Management

Identifies and prioritises resources, anticipates constraints, work scheduling and mobilizes resources so as to achieve the targets/goals. Is personally organized and systematic.

2) Problem Solving/Analytical Skills

Overcomes problems and obstacles through systematic analysis and balanced decision-making. Seeks all relevant information and finds the optimal solution.

3) Interpersonal Skills/Team Working/Conflict Resolution (Interpersonal Skills)

Is an effective and committed team member? Understands other people and relates effectively to them. Shares information and ideas and seeks to resolve conflicts.

4) Self Empowerment (Action Orientation)

Confident, decisive and action-oriented. Assumes ownership and responsibility for his job. Is committed and energetic and has a clear sense of what needs to be done.

5) Creativity/Flexibility

Is open and adaptable. Looks at situations creatively and finds new solutions.

Middle Management – Level Competencies

1) Listening/ Summarizing (Networking)

Collects, interprets and shares information effectively. Interacts, liases and builds relationships with a diverse range of parties both internal and external to the organization.

2) Motivation/Caring

Creates an urge in an employee to achieve specific objectives. Shows genuine concern and respect and are sensitive to employees' needs. Is committed to supporting and protecting staff.

3) Empowering/ Development of Subordinates

Creates an environment where people have the confidence to assume responsibility and ownership of the job. Supports ongoing feedback and development and helps staff to realise their full potential through appropriate interventions.

4) Improvement Orientation

Keeps own skill set up to date and is proactive in ensuring the implementation of new and better ways of achieving desired objectives. Ensures that learning is shared and that quality is maintained and improved upon.

5) Integrity/Drive

Fully internalises the organizations philosophy of doing business and acts as a role model and example. Is committed to the job and works hard for the long term good of the organisation. Takes on responsibility and accepts challenges.

6) Specialist Knowledge

Has a good grasp of a wide range of operational issues and demonstrates good technical project skills. Keeps updated on new developments, theories and methods and continuously expands his knowledge base. Capable of conducting research in a specialist area.

7) Influencing & Persuading

Makes an impact and puts his/her ideas and views across clearly. Establishes credibility, gains acceptance and converts resistance to acceptance.

CONLUSION ===============================================================