Grades 7,8,9 : LIFE SCIENCE - Activities 35 - 44

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SUBJECT: Science GRADE: 7,8,9 GROUP SIZE: Large in pairs TIME: 30 to 45 minutes TYPE OF ACTIVITY: Student Investigation TEACHING STRATEGY: Expository and Discovery CONCEPTS: ESP Telepathy "Fair" Experiments SKILLS: Identification and Control of Variables ' RESOURCES: BK - A.5;H 124

Objectives: To duplicate ESP experiments tried by some of the astronauts; to develop methods of experimental data collection and experimental control.

Materials: ESP cards from study sheet; data recording sheet for each student.

Teacher Background Information: An experiment which took place on one space flight dealt with ESP and Telepathy.

An astronaut tried to "send" thoughts to a person on the ground and visa versa. Quite a bit of scientific work is going on now in both the United States and Russia to test whether or not persons do have some ability to send information by thought wave alone. The following activity uses the same ESP cards the astronauts used in their experiment.


  1. Run off the cards from the activity sheet on card stock or heavy paper if possible. You will need 5 each of the 5 designs.
  2. Have students make a data sheet. (See illustration)
  3. Have the students consider how to set up a "fair"

experiment. what variables need to be controlled? How should the data be recorded? How will a record of the actual cards turned be recorded? How should the data be evaluated? what is the probability of a correct response by chance? How many correct responses indicate 'ESP sensitivity?

  1. Suggested format...Have two students take a set of twenty five cards out of sight of the other students.

Have one student turn the cards over one at a time and think of the card turned. Have the second student record on a response sheet what the card was and say "first card, second card," etc. until all twenty five have been turned. Have the students record the number of the card under the symbol on their sheet. (see the sample).

  1. Have the students circle their correct responses as a student reads from the master list.
  2. Repeat the experiment at least one more time and preferably twice.
  3. Evaluate the data. If there are students who consistently get more than 9 or 10 correct responses try to test them separately. Some researchers say that about one in five persons has ESP powers. How does your class data stack up against this? '

Extensions: Research the findings of the astronauts. Try additional experiments in ESP including: A. Clairvoyance, B. Precognition, C. Psychokinesis.

[p125 Illustration of Data Sheet ]

[p127 ESP card]


Objectives: To help students understand how aircraft have impacted on the environment with positive results and with problems that need to be considered.

Materials: Books, pamphlets, encyclopedias on aircraft and what they do ("Aircraft and the Environment," Dept. of Transportation, FAA, Washington, D.C. 20591, is helpful); model rocket; %A engine; 2 ring stands; ring stand test tube clamp; ring stand upright; 2 clamps or wire; model rocket ignition system.

Teacher Background Information: Set up the ring stand "launcher" as follows: Attach the extra ringstand upright between the two stands with clamps (or wire the rod to the stands). Attach the test tube clamp to the rear ring stand. Insert the rocket engine in the clamp with the nozzle pointing away from the stand. BE SURE THE NOZZLE IS POINTED AWAY FROM FLAMMABLE MATERIAL AND AT LEAST 15 FEET FROM ANY WALL. If a vented hood is available, aim the rocket exhaust into the hood, If you do not do this experiment outdoors, ventilate the room right after the rocket is fired. Remember, the rocket discharges forward also. l* I Ea '51 .div . ', #A '

Procedure: Ask the students to observe very carefully all that happens during and after the rocket "launches." Set off the rocket and ask them to relate what happened. "It went forward," will surely be followed by "It was loud" and “It smells!" Focus on the pollutants it leaves: noise, smell, smoke, etc. Think through with the students what sorts of environmental ramifications there may be as we send shuttle crafts up every 10 days or so.

L-_c SUBJECT: Science GRADE: 7,8,9 GROUP SIZE: Large TIME: 45 minutes TYPE OF ACTIVITY: Teacher Demo Student Research TEACHING STRATEGY: Guided Discovery Open Discovery CONCEPTS: Environmental ~ Impact Pollution SKILLS: Observation Inference Research RESOURCES: BK - A.1;B FM - 6,34 129

If this little rocket can do what it does, have them imagine what 2 rocket boosters such as those on the Shuttle must be like. , Second, discuss some of the possible negative environmental results of any aircraft being launched today. (Noise? Emissions? Cementing over of acres of land? Crop dusting pollutants?) Third, have the students brainstorm and list the positive environmental impact of aircraft in the atmosphere. (Use in agriculture to seed, fertilize, apply herbicides and insecticides? in livestock production? forest management? logging? game management? freight hauling? people-moving?, etc.) Fourth, question the data as you go. what do the students know and understand about what the use of aircraft can do environmentally? Are there facts to support contentions that something is beneficial rather than harmful in the final analysis? Where can they look to find facts to support or refute what they think they know? Fifth, after the students have brought as much information to the discussion as they can, fill in any spots you feel are important and then ask the class to help you categorize the elements discussed into general areas of environmental concern and areas of environmental benefit. Have groups research information about the environmental impact of aircraft in the atmosphere and check if the original understandings were supported or not._ Provide time and materials for searching and have the students share their data with the whole class.


Objective: to help students understand the "Spinoff" benefits of the space program for those of us on Earth. Materials: Various books and/or pamphlets on "spin offs" from the space program. (NASA Spin Off books have been available each year for several years and are super sources.) Procedure: 1. Ask your students to think of the things we now have because of the space program. Write the responses on the board and have someone keep a written record of them. (Most of the initial responses will quite likely be about the Space Shuttle, missiles or rockets, etc., and there will surely be a number of benefits the class will be unaware of. 2. When they have finished, explain that there are numerous benefits from the exploration of space and they can be broken into some basic categories: a. Communication Satellites b. Weather Satellites c. Landsat d. Oceanic Observers e. Defense f. Medical g. Other Technological Benefits (like freeze-dried food, alternative energy sources, computors, fabrics, metal processing, etc.) 3. Break the class into seven groups and have them research the benefits of space with a focus on their specific area of concern. 4. Have the students spend some time searching for information and collecting their data. Encourage students to write to NASA for information on the benefits of the space program. Michigan students can write to: Lewis Research Center, Teacher Information Center, Mail Stop 8-1, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, OH 44135 or Aviation and Space Center, Oakland University, Rochester, MI' 48063. 5. After gathering their data, have the students compile the information in a booklet with illustrations of some of the benefits they have found. ha... SUBJECT: Science IGRADE: 7,8,9 GROUP SIZE: small TIME: Several Days TYPE OF ACTIVITY: Student Investiga- tion TEACHING STRATEGY: Open Discovery Guided Discovery CONCEPTS: Spinoff Technology Research Benefits SKILLS: Research Hypothesizing Inference RESOURCES: BK - A.1;B.2;C;G;H FM - 5,64 131

6. Bring the class together for a discussion and sharing of the booklets. Prior to class, write the original list of benefits the students had thought of on the board and then have each group present their booklet to the rest of the group. As benefits are presented, have someone write on the board those that were not brought up in the original discussion and compare the two lists. benefit ii-ill ?;%a,, l A 5 ` ‘%?f2 / - . .

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Obgectivesz To provide an approximation of what it feels like in a weightless atmosphere; to relate earthbound activities to space activities. Materials: Activity sheet (following lesson); graph paper; water bucket with water. Teacher Back round Information: The following activity is adapted from Earthbound Astronauts" available as a pamphlet from ISS, University of Houston, Room 112 Farish Hall, Houston, TX 77004 (713) 749-1692. The pamphlet, along with another titled "The Physiology of Fear," uses amusement park activities such as those found at Cedar Point or Six Flags Over Texas, to do a lot of good teaching. Procedure: 1. Before getting into a discussion of weightlessness in space, ask your students to- imagine taking a bucket and filling it part way with water and swinging it over their heads. what will happen? Get the bucket and begin swinging the bucket back and forth. what happens to the water? Now, swing the bucket completely around over your head. What do the students observe about the water? Is it falling up into the bucket? why? (anti-gravity) 2. Have the students imagine riding an elevator while standing on a bathroom scale. This is a thought experiment, so ask them to really get in touch with feelings they have experienced in elevators and then start them at the top floor. Ask them to imagine they are on the 20th floor standing on a scale. They push the button for the basement. what will happen to the reading on the scale? How long will this wonderful diet go on? what happens when the elevator slows down for its basement stop? (gain weight slightly) what happens when the elevator comes to a complete stop? (back to normal weight) why does all of this happen? 3. If they are having trouble figuring it out, have them image jumping off a diving board while sitting on the scale. what would the scale read as they fly through the air? what can this be compared to? 4. Discuss some of the times when a person could feel what it's like to be "weightless." Free- L-_ SUBJECT: Science GRADE: 7,8,9 GROUP SIZE: Large TIME: 60 minutes TYPE OF ACTIVITY: Discussion and Student Investigation TEACHING STRATEGY: Guided Discovery Expository CONCEPTS: g Forces Gravity weightless SKILLS: Hypothesizing Inference Collecting Data RESOURCES: BK - A.1,5;I FM - 48 133

falling from a plane, just after a person crests a hill in a car, diving in a parabolic arc in a plane, are three examples. If no one mentions some of the rides at the amusement park, bring them up: the roller coaster, the free fall (Demon Drop or Texas Cyclone), the rotor, the parachute drop and the Enterprise or the wheelie. As you discuss some of these rides, talk about when the rider is falling down, falling up, is weightless or is pulling more g's than usual. A. Roller Coaster: what happens when you suddenly drop over the crest of a big roller coaster? What do you imagine your weight is at that point? what happens to the stomach in the valley of the roller coaster? Why? (Because you can go so fast, you can feel 3 g's and that's what astronauts pull at blast off of the Space Shuttlel) when you are back up again and have reached the second hilltop, what can you expect to feel at the peak? Do you know what this free fall curve is called? (parabola) what happens when you're in a roller coaster with loops? (You fall up, just like the water in the bucket.) If you had a ball tied to string that was tied to your writst, what would happen to it as you fell up? B. The Enterprise or Wheelie: This ride is almost a life-size version of the water bucket experiment- The bucket is now a padded car and the person gets to play the water. The rope attached to the bucket is replaced by a set of support beams that extend 25 feet from the center to the seat of each car. Ask the students to imagine the cars building up speed and tilting until riders orbit in a nearly vertical circle at a rate of 4 seconds per turn at a speed of 27 miles per hour. why is speed so important? what does the body pushing against the back of the car tell you about the g force? where would the force be greatest - at the top or at the bottom? Why? Explain to the students that before the Apollo moon missions, astronauts trained on a faster version of the super-gravity machine. It was called a centrifuge. Those tests of human reactions to g forces provided the data to guarantee that the wheelie is a safe ride. (Another “spin-off" from the Space Program!?!) Ask how the students might relate this ride to giant space stations orbiting the earth. How could the concept be

used that way? Where on this spinning station, would it be most comfortable for people to walk about? C. The Rotor: This is a turning barrel with a floor that drops down about a foot once the 12.5 foot barrel is spinning at full speed. Why do they have to wait until it has speeded up? It turns at about 35 turns per minute - about the rate of a long playing record - and produces a g force of over 2.5. why are 2.5 g's necessary to this ride? what happens when the floor drops away? Why don't all the people fall down? How could this concept be used for space vehicles orbiting in space? 5. Hand out the activity sheet and talk about the Demon Drop or Texas Cliffhanger free fall ride. where does weightlessness occur? Where would they feel the largest number of g forces? Make sure your students understand the way the ride works so the data recorded will make sense to them. There are two parts to the activity. (a) Have the students use the first page of the activity sheets to do a graph of the two persons' pulse rates; and (b) have the students complete the answers on the second page of the activity sheets. Discuss with them, the physiological and the psychological ramifications of rides such as these. How do those ramifications relate to astronauts in space or, indeed, to any of us who might someday live and work in space? Extension: Talk with the students about what other kinds of data one could collect at an amusement park and the ways the data could be recorded and then analysed. (Things like: What's the most popular ride? What's the average wait time on specific rides? What's the most common comment made by people as they come off a particular ride? How many people come to the park in an hour on average? What's the ratio of adults to children? etc., etc.) Talk about how important some of that information could be to the park owners and managers and how they use information like that. Make plans to visit an amusement park with your students, armed with specific questions you want answered and a scientific method to obtain those answers.

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FREE FALL DATA SHEET A -37 Ride begins moving backward [L_,T B -18 Riders start to rise 'EFFF9 C -= 8 Riders reach top and start moving _ outward fi'- D- g 0 Riders drop im _, E 2 Rider entering curve g5g 5 F 4 Rider on his/her back 'ul H G 12 Rider dropping down on raiis .M fi H 18 Rider off of ride »§YEa VR f FREE FALL: Ride which carries if . » riders straight up 120 feet and drops them for 2 seconds of ;l+1 | free faii §»{ H _ Q ~~ ' ' “ "1 l§5”Z&"‘ 1 ' --» \'. 3 1 T _g .. v.-=~»~~‘=’f";_, _\ "“" '53' --1" 5§"1L+.!,§°=_i-- » 1 ~fy 3 n , -. ff ~ ~_ 1 ~ ¢auu~4a ‘Ac 1 ~ _,V .e ~ V _,_ .2 /All / .. 1 IM ._ A J - vf n “ti `\ ` ui fb ' \ ,//§’_¢_;,.5. 1 E df if ABQ a " gge e f £;;;é;j~ //////ZEQEIEQA\<i-¢~=}%§§g;_A§?§T=€£11E ;lIA | Pulse Rate - Joan Prukop Pu1se Rate - Katie Jackson Pu1se Time Pu1se Time Puise Time Puise Time 97 -25 131 19 95 -37 151 7 97 -24 134 23 99 -32 144 9 92 -23 135 25 103 -30 124 10 95 -20 135 27 108 -28 138 11 98 ~18 132 28 103 -24 138 12 92 ~15 134 29 104 -22 _ 137 13 103 ~14 131 31 104 -19 137 15 130 ~ 7 112 -17 ` 132 16 131 ~ 6 101 -15 129 17 124 - 5 Two data points 115 -13 124 19 130 - 3 from the audio- 132 -11 124 21 138 0 tape have been 140 ~ 9 122 24 136 4 omitted due to 132 - 8 119 25 140 7 e1ectrode ma1- 144 - 5 120 27 147 8 function, 139 - 4 112 28 143 11 142 ~ 2 100 31 144 '12 152 0 99 33 134 14 160 1 90 36 132 15 131 5 84 39 132 18 153 6 80 42 137




Joan Prukop is a 30 year oid physicai science teacher riding the Texas Ciiffhanger (Cedar Point caiis it the Demon Drop) for the first time. Katie Jackson is a 13 year oid student riding the Texas Ciiffhanger for the second time (the first time on the recording day). 1. Where on the ride does Katie's puise rate peak?


2. where does Joan‘s puise rate peak?

l; 3. Offer a possib1e exp1anation for the difference

4. which rider's pulse rate drops back to norma1 more quick1y?

5. In this ride, does the anticipation of the drop seem to cause puise rates to rise?

.i.____i 6. what seems to be the effect on puise rates of moving the riders s1ow1y toward the drop? (points C-D)


7. What is the pu1se gain for Joan? _ (% gain

what is the pu1se gain for Katie? (% gain

8. what variabies are there here that shouid be considered when com- paring the two recordings? Can you make any generaiizations from from these two pieces of data?

9. which ride at an amusement park seems the most fear-inducing to you? why do you think you fee1 as you do?


Objectives: To understand some of the problems the body faces while living in a weightless atmosphere; to apply the information in devising exercise equipment to offset the problems. Materials: ramificatons of living in space.l Books and pamphlets on the physical Procedures: 1. Talk with the students about what some of the problems of living in a weightless condition might be. Ask them to think about how their body functions in an atmosphere of 1 g. a. How hard is it to walk up hill? b. How much effort does it take to ride a bike? c. How are their muscles used to lift things? d. what sort of exercise do they get when they run? e. Are their legs, arms, lungs and heart all affected by exercise? f. How does gravity enter the picture here? g. what might happen to people who are unable to use their arms or legs for long periods of time, for example, when people have to stay in bed for sev- eral weeks? _ How vital is exercise to a well conditioned body? . How important is gravity and the resistance it provides to a well- conditioned body? h i 2. Discuss what might happen, then, if people were to try to live for long periods without gravity. Have the students make some predictions based on the earlier discussion. 3. Have the students do some research on what space scientists have found out about the body's response to weightlessness. Spend some time gathering information and sharing it in class. 4. Finally, have the students devise, either on paper or with a model, a compact, useful piece of exercise equipment that will help solve at least one of the physiological problems caused by weightlessness. Remind them to think about such things as: - atrophy of the muscles - loss of muscle mass, especially in the legs L» SUBJECT: Science GRADE: 7,8,9 GROUP SIZE: Large TIME: 60 minutes TYPE OF ACTIVITY: Discussion and Student Activity TEACHING STRATEGY: Guided Discovery Expository CONCEPTS: weightless Atrophy Conditioning SKILLS: Reading for Infor» mation Measuring RESOURCES: BK - A.1,5;C FM - 18,48,65,66 139

._A ` 140 - loss of calcium and bone strength - how to keep the person attached to the equipment - how to provide resistance in micro-gravity conditions - how to provide aerobic conditioning WHILE THEY ARE AT IT...ask your students to keep a look out for answers to such questions as: - Why are people taller in space? - Why is the heart rate lower in space? - Why does a person's face swell in space? when the students are ready to share their exercise equipment models or drawings, see if anyone has also run across some answers to the "extra questions" and can share them with the class. Also, if anyone has thought of a question he or she would like answered, see if the class can think of ways to possibly find the necessary information. Extension: Check the K - 6 COME FLY WITH ME materials for the following activities which relate to the body in space: #62-Pilot Test, #63-Human Reaction Time, #64-Lung Capacity, #90-Recording Heart Rate, #91- Physical Fitness in Space. 1-¢ ¢‘§.,»-- fl "’\c/

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Objective: To give students the opportunity to understand some of the psychological needs of living in an enclosed environment in space.

Materials: Paper and pencils. Procedures: 1. Have students break up into groups of six or seven. Try to see to it that the groups are as heterogeneous as possible. 2. Ask each group to spend ten minutes brainstorming the psychological needs of people living together 'hi a closed environment. Ask them to imagine that the vehicle is occupied by the six or seven people in their group, that the space they occupy is approximately the size of an average classroom and they are to be in this space for twelve days. Each group should have someone-jot down what the group comes up with. , 3. After they have spent 10 minutes brainstorming, inform them that the reentry ability of the capsule has malfunctioned and that ground control has determined that they cannot return for a year when they estimate 'the engineers will have a rescue vehicle built capable of picking them up and returning them to earth. All other areas of concern are taken care of: food is plentiful, all systems for pressurizing and decontamination, for example, are fine. Now, what other psychological considerations are there to be concerned with since the trip will take a whole year? Have them brainstorm and keep notes. 4. Bring the groups together and share what each of them came up with. How did the two periods of time affect their lists of psychological concerns? Can they prioritize some of the concerns? How important are the psychological ramifications to a successful living arrangement in a closed environment in space? 5. Finally, have the students work together in their groups to design a craft that is expected to be in space for two years. Assume all physical considerations have been met, but the groups are to imagine they are psychologists who are responsible for determining the most appropriate and emotionally healthy way to provide for the psychological ramifications of 40 SUBJECT: Science &» GRADE: 7,8,9 GROUP SIZE: Small TIME: 60 minutes TYPE OF ACTIVITY: Student Investiga tion TEACHING STRATEGY Open Discovery Guided Discovery CONCEPTS; Psychological needs Living in Space SKILLS: Hypothesizing Working in Groups Inference RESOURCES: BK - A.5;C;H FM - 65

living in space for two years. How would they provide for these in the design of the craft? Ask each group to share their craft and the ideas they come up with with the larger group. Drawings or models with explanations would be fun. 6. After the sharing, discuss whether there were differences in how each of the groups approached their task. were there any differences in what was deemed as psychologically important to the members of the various groups? Were there differences in what members within groups felt was important? Is it helpful to have a meaningful cross-section of people with a variety of perceptions when groups engage _in discussions of this sort? Have them check out how NASA approaches problem solving questions such as this. Extensions: Have students research the 1973-74 Sky Lab space station orbits for information on how a crew of three spent 84 days in space. Sv ;,___ -1% U’ ' O O i..l.__- i .-_. ai-_l _-__-ii ' ul.;- Jar * ~ C Q G -D _ j( 4 ff.; g e UGC? °°°:‘° . rg * A ° Q 3-:::"

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Objectives: To demonstrate how to collect and grow living things in a nutrient medium; to relate the experiment to scientists searching for life in space. Materials: Refrigerator jars, plastic butter tubs or covered petri~ dishes; bread. Teacher Background Information: Molds, yeasts, or similar micro~organisms can be found almost anywhere in the world. Any bit of nmterial, whether of air, water, or earth, contains numerous examples of such micro-organisms. Under ideal conditions, they sprout into lush, spectacularly beautiful, microscopic jungles. This simple form of life offers space scientists a means of investigating the possibility of life on other planets. Scientists believe there. is a greater possibility that this type of plant life, or something comparable, would be associated with other living things. Accordingly, they have designed small robot instruments which land on the surface of distant planets and draw some of the surrounding material inside and drop it into a culture medium. Periodically, this liquid food is checked for chemical changes and the container for temperature or atmospheric composition changes. This information is transmitted back to the earth where the biological scientists compare it with already existing knowledge. Procedure: A covered refrigerator dish or clean glass jar makes a good environmental area for some types of microorganism growth. 1. Have students obtain a supply of molds by rubbing a piece of bread across a carpet or other floor area. Moisten the bread and put it into a covered evironmental area for several days. (Since molds and related plants do not possess chlorophyll, they should flourish without sunlight.) 2. After several days, have the students examine the growth with a low powered microscope or hand lens. Viewing is best with a bright light falling on the surface of the growth. Ask students to notice the rate and types of growth as well as changes in the base materials. 3. Ask students to think of experiments scientists 41 hm SUBJECT: Science GRADE: 7,8,9 GROUP SIZE: small TIME: Several Days TYPE OF ACTIVITY: Student Investiga tion TEACHING STRATEGY Guided Discovery Discussion CONCEPTS: Nutrient Medium Extraterrestrial life SKILLS: Experimentation Interpreting Data Hypothesizing RESOURCES: BK - A.3d;E FM - 36,39

might do in order to determine if life exists on another planet. Why would it be important to determine this? Might there be a need for protection from some microbes in space? Discuss virulent and benign forms of microorganisms. , 4. Ask the students what finding microorganisms in space might say about the liklihood of finding more complicated forms of life in space. Relate this experiment to the Voyager experiments and have the students do some research on how the scientists went about looking for life and what they found. Relate this activity to your general study of mycocetes. ‘§\(§‘ .LB 63- 4:\1\

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Objectives: To provide students with a greater understanding of the moon; to apply concepts of the moon to futurizing about what it would be like to live and work there. Materials: Books, pamphlets, etc., about what we've learned about the moon. Teacher Background Information: Just as Galileo's telescopic observations of the moon opened a new era in modern astronomy, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin‘s walk on the moon opened a new discipline in science - lunar science. Since it is quite likely that we and our students will see some sort of colonizing of the moon, it is important for our young people to know more about our nearest neighbor and potential home away from home. In addition, it is important that students attempt to futurize - to use what they understand and know to be true now to try to predict what life might be in the future. Only with this ability will they have even a minimal chance of controlling their futures and we owe them, at least, that. » ~ Procedure: 1. Discuss with the class some of the things they understand to be true about the moon (our nearest neighbor in space; accessible by Saturn rocket and lunar lander as well as other rockets; one sixth the gravity of earth; waterless, airless and lifeless; similar crust and about the same age as earth; pummelled by meteorites; cratered; sunlit on one side, for example). As questions arise, write them down and devise ways with the class to find answers. 2. Explain to the students they will need to know as much as they can about the moon in order to do some intelligent futurizing about a moon colony they could live on. Provide the students with the resource material you have and time to check further with the library or to write for information if materials are scarce. 3. Once the students have some information from which to work, break them up into groups of 3 or 4 and explain they will be constructing a "moon city" out of whatever materials they wish to use. 42 SUBJECT: Science GRADE: 7,8,9 GROUP SIZE: Large TIME: Several periods TYPE OF ACTIVITY: Student Research Constructing Models TEACHING STRATEGY: Open Discovery Guided Discovery CONCEPTS: Living on the Moon Colonies Human Needs SKILLS: Reading for Data Futurizing Construction RESOURCES: BK - A.5b;C;D.5C3 FM - 49,52,53,6O 145

4. Explain to the students that this is a very integrated activity. They should know that they will be expected to use their skills in science, mathematics, architecture, sociology, psychology, political science and economics. They will be expected to consider health care, education and the question of who's in charge on this colony. It is expected that, though people can travel back and forth from the city to the earth (just as some raw materials and finished goods will) most of the people will live out their lives on the moon city and all contingincies for life must be accounted for. The teacher's ability to encourage students to focus on what they know and what they need to find out before and during the construciton is very important. It is very easy for students to fall into science fiction without reality based concepts and, though that can be fun, it does not help to meet the objectives of this lesson. Make certain the students know that evaluation will be based on what you have explained are your expectations about the project. In addition, they will be evaluated on how well they discuss their "city" and answer questions from the class about it. \ ‘VL/;i."<:i\ / 4"/ c_,»<;“j\>,\_ /' -> f § ff/ / /,_,~5_¢1./ ,~// af --\ Y _ __.- ._ - ,' \ ~ -1 . 3- ' '\\|,|| ,' I / 'fr I "’~ ,' "

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Objective: To utilize understanding of the hostile environment of space in constructing a model space colony. Materials: ANYTHING YOU CAN THINK OF! Styrofoam or paper plates, hamburger and pie containers; cardboard rolls; straws; styrofoam or paper cups; plastic soda bottles; flat cardboard, felt pens; string; toothpicks; glue; scissors; Exacto knives; masking tape; bits and pieces of colored paper; paint; styrofoam "peanuts" (they make great space peoplel). Procedure: (A) Brainstorming. 1. Write "The Year 2084" on the chalkboard and circle it. 2. Ask students to share what kinds of things they think we would have to concern ourselves with if we were living in space in the year 2084. Jobs, food, entertainment, oxygen, gravity, schooling, plants, storage, enclosed environment, etc. are some of the things that will likely come up. As they share, discuss the problems that are involved with each. Search for solutions. Share ideas with each other. 3. Ask the class whether they really feel we will be able to live for long periods in space in the year 2084. Sooner? Later? what will a space colony look like? what might we have a space colony for? These can be pretty important questions and the students should be encouraged to use all the information they have gathered through their aerospace and other activities to think about them. 4. Ask the class to make some predictions about the future and discuss the difficulty of making predictions in such swiftly changing times. Talk about how it is more vital than ever to learn how to think rather than learning how to memorize out of date answers. 5. Explain that groups of students will be constructing their own space colony starting the following day and they should be thinking about what they would like that colony to look like. Show them what you have gathered in the way of materials and encourage them to bring whatever else they think they will need. 43 SUBJECT: Science GRADE: 7,8,9 GROUP SIZE: Small TIME: Several periods TYPE OF ACTIVITY: Modeling Student Research Nilllllnn TEACHING STRATEGY: Open Discovery Guided Discovery CONCEPTS: Colonization of Space Human Needs SKILLS: Hypothesizing Futurizing Construction RESOURCES: BK - A.2c;B;C;H FM - 47,61,66 147

(B.) Construction. 1. Divide the class into groups of 4-5. 2. Explain that each group will construct a space colony where people live and work. 3. Explain that, at the end of the construction, the group will be responsible for explaining their construction, what the various parts of, the colony are for, how concerns such as weightlessness, lack of oxygen, decontamination, energy, entertainment, learning, sleeping, loneliness, etc., are being met on the colony. In addition, they should be able to talk about the people living in the colony, who they are and what they do there. 4. As the students construct their colonies, allow adequate time for research and discussion. They should know that real involvement during the construction will be the best way for them to truly understand some of the ramificatons of living in space. 5. As the students work, the teacher should also actively engage in the process: ask what is happening, what problems are being solved, what things are and encourage the groups to explore and answer questions they may not think of on their own. Reinforce the science concepts involved throughout the construction phase. (C.) Presentation. Ask each group to set up their display in an appropriate part of the room. The displays should be "self-explanatory" to some degree (much like a science fair project) but the groups will also be called on to make a verbal presentation. If possible, ask another class in to share the presentations. _E-,lg ;._.;~<:, __ _ * \<' Q 1§ii£!§£'"’i\ 4: * `;;' 2 _ f’ 1**WM®¥’. 'e%2»


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Objectives: To give students a greater understanding of what happens as people live and work aboard the Shuttle; to provide ideas for possible science fair projects. Materials: “Space Shuttle Search Assignment Sheet," lfollowing activity); Books, pamphlets, etc. on the Space Shuttle; Shuttle models or pictures. Teacher Background Information: One of the concerns most science teachers have is getting students to do meaningful science projects either for class or for the annual science fair. One of the reasons for this seems to be that kids tend to do projects “in a vacuum;" they seldom see how what they've been studying relates to them or how it could be extended to an idea for a project. when they do understand how something can be bridged to their own lives, experiments or investigations become a great deal more inviting for most. This activity is an example of how this can work. Small groups of students research Shuttle topics and have the opportunity to present their information to the class verbally and with visual effects. Following the presentation, the teacher and the class engage in a brainstorming session on each of the eleven topics, looking for related ideas that might lend themselves to a question which could be investigated for a science (fair) project. Procedure: (Part I) 1. Show the students a model or pictures of the Space Shuttle. Ask what they already know about how the Shuttle works, what people do on it, how life is provided for. Because of press coverage, they should have some conceptual knowledge about the Shuttle; however, some of their information is likely to be incomplete and some may be incorrect. ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO QUESTION RATHER THAN TO GIVE INFORMATION ABOUT CONCEPTS THAT ARE FUZZY. 2. when the discussion is completed, break the class into eleven groups and give each group ONE of the assignments from the sheet. Provide time and resources for the students to search for information on their topic. Explain they will be expected to compile their data and to present it on a specific day. 44 L... Science GRADE: 7,8,9 GROUP SIZE: Individual or Small TIME: Several Weeks TYPE OF ACTIVITY: Student Investiga- tion TEACHING STRATEGY: Open Discovery Guided Discovery CONCEPTS: Research Space Shuttle SKILLS: Experimentation Collecting Data Reporting Data RESOURCES: BK - A.1,5e;B;D.3a;H FM - 63

3. At the scheduled time, have the students give their presentations to the class. Leave time for questions of the groups and, once finished, display the visual material in a Space Shuttle Centers Invite other classes in to see. (Part II) After the presentations, brainstorm each of the eleven topics with your students keeping in mind they are to think about related ideas that might possibly be worked up as a science project. They are to consider anything that relates to the particular Shuttle topic under discussion; they should not try to think of specific project questions yet ~ just related ideas, No evaluation or qualifying should be done about the ideas at this point, eithers Even if an idea doesn't exactly relate to the subject, it could still be an idea that leads to a good investigation question so write everything down, To give some idea of the sort of thing that can come up in sessions like this, here are a few ideas that came up for topics 1 and 10: 1. Sleeping on the Shuttle How much sleep do I really need? Do animals dream? How can the space in my bedroom be made more efficient? How long can people go without sleep? Does exercise help people to sleep? Are there ways to help people fall asleep? Can you sleep upside down? Standing up? 10. Manipulator Arm Devices to pick up stuff in my room Devices paraplegics use How does my arm/hand work? Robotics Artificial arms and legs Can you use the manipulator arm on Earth? The ideas that come from the brainstorming are just that - ideas - not project questions. The students and teacher will still have to formulate good research questions that can be turned into hypotheses which can then be investigated. .

SPACE SHUTTLE SEARCH ASSIGNMENT SHEET 1 Fmd out how the astronauts sleep on the Shuttle lnvestrgate the drfference between some earher sleepmg arrangements (for example what were the sleepmg arrangements on Apollo ll’) and the Shuttle s facrhtres Explam to the class how thrngs have changed Use rllustratrons or models to show how the astronauts sleep Explam what nme they go to sleep and what tame therr work day starts 2 Fmd out about the Shuttle Orbrter s food system Fmd out what sort of food IS eaten by the astronauts how much how rt s prepared stored etc Tell the class how the astronaut dret rs frgured out and where they can get srmrlar food Br mg samples of the sort of food eaten on the Shuttle and share wrth the class 3 Fmd out about the space suits and head gear wom on board the Shuttle How do they drffer from earher models for other mrssrons’ What are they made of’ Are they made for male and female crew members’ (Fmd out only about the gear wom msrde the craft as another group rs workmg on the EVA gear ) After you have your rnformatron gathered make drawings or ftnd prctures to show the class what the gear looks lrke and how rt works 4 Fmd out how the Shuttle rs launched Usrng an tllustratron of the Shuttle show the class the basrc parts of the craft and explam how rt gets off the ground and how rt enters orbrt What krnd of fuel rs used’ How many g s are expenenced on take off’ (What lS a g ’) How ts the g force better now wtth the Shuttle than most other manned fhghts’ How fast does the Shuttle orbit’ Descnbe to the class what can be seen as the Shuttle orbrts the Earth Bnng prctures of take off They re beautrful Bnng prctures of what the astronauts see whrle rn orbrt 5 Fmd out about wetghtlessness on the Shuttle (Drd you know you d be taller rn space than on Earth’ Fmd out why ) Explain to the class what happens rn werghtless condrtrons when you eat go to the bathroom take a shower or do work on board Hou are the problems solved on the Shuttle’ Bnng prctures or drawrngs of astronauts rn werghtless condrnons Tell the class how NASA prepares astronauts to hve rn werghtlessness 6 Fmd out why rt s so rmportant for the astronauts to exercxse rn space Fmd out what krnd of exercrses do the yob and what some of the problems are Shou. the class a drawmg of the treadmrll and explam :ts use Why rs rt rmportant that astronauts be rn good condrtron before they come on board’ Why do they need to exercise after they get there’ Why are the needs greater the longer the fhght’ 7 Fmd out how the axr manufacturmg and control system rnsrde the Shuttle works and why rt s so VITAL up there where the Shuttle orbrts Why would your blood botl rn space’ Fmd out and tdl the class how the Shuttle engrneers keep that from happening to the astronauts Explam how the arr rs punfred Bnng somethmg that rllustrates to the class how the whole process works 8 You won t be able to shower on the Shuttle but you wrll be able to stay clean AND go to the bathroom when necessary How come showenng rs sud: a problem and }ust how does one go about staymg on the torlet seat rn a werghtless oondrtxon’ Find out how NASA has provrded for the personal hygrene of rts astronauts Find out why the fuel cells on board are so rmportant to this provrsron Explarn why rt s so VITAL tl1at thrs aspect of space travel be carefully provrded for and whrle you re at rt find out why you don t have to tnm your frngemarls as often rn space Bnng prctures or drawrngs of the personal hyglene facrlrnes to show the class 9 Fmd out how the astronauts whrle m orbrt leave the Shuttle and why Fmd out what ktnd of gear rs used for EVA (Extra Vehrcular Actwrty) Fmd out and explam to the class the procedure used to leave the vehrcle and some of the thrngs the astronauts do outsrde the craft Explam how gear protects the astronauts from the hosnle envrronment What would happen wrthout rt’ Bnng prctures or drawmgs of EVA to show the class 10 Fmd out about the Mampulator Arm How does rt work’ Why rs rt so helpful to the astronauts’ What does rt do rn space’ How rs rt like a human arm’ Make a model for the class of the space crane showrng the movable shoulder elbow and wnst on the arm Explam how it works Bnng prctures of the arm 11 Fmd out how the Space Shuttle comes back to Earth Fmd out when the astronauts begm re-entry procedures and explam to the class the steps they go through to bnng the craft back to the landxng sxte Explarn how a vehrcle that took off as a rocket comes back as an arrplane How fast rs rt flymg as rt touches down’ What IS tts angle on re-entry’ How does rt drffer from most other arrplanes’ What happens to the Shuttle after rt retums’ How rs that drfferent from other spacecraft rn the past’ . v . . . . , . . . . . . e » . . . , , . y . . . . . _ n 1 = - 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