Central Africa from C.1000 to Independence

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Early civilizations and states

a) Great Zimbabwe, Mwene-Mutapa, Kongo;

b) Lunda-Luba States: Mwata Yamvo, Bemba, Mwata, Kazembe

c) Malawi States: Cewa, Undi

Portuguese rule in Angola, Congo, Mozambique and the Zambezi Valley

The Mfecane and its impact on Central Africa

Ngoni, Sotho, Lozi, Ndebele (Matabele) and Gaza

The Baya, Banda and Zande invaders of the Northern Congo Basin

African trading systems and peoples

Lunda, Chokwe, Yao, Rozwi, Bisa and Swahili/Arab.

Christian missionary activity and its effects from 1850

The scramble for and partition of Central Africa.

African response: Ndebele, Mashona, Lozi, Zande, Yeke, Yao, Gaza kingdom

Central Africa under colonial rule

Portuguese system of administration with special attention to Mozambique; British system with special attention to Northern Rhodesia (Zambia). Belgian system in Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo); French system with special attention to Congo.

Economic and social developments under colonial rule

changes in communications, industry, commerce and agriculture; urbanisation; health and education; all with special reference to Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).

Nationalist movements in Central Africa since 1900 and the regaining of Independence

with special attention to Zaire, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique