CYP RCA/Workshops/Workshop 1 Draft Report
- 1 Workshop 1, Draft Report
- 1.1 1. Background
- 1.2 2. About Sierra Leone
- 1.3 3. Objectives
- 1.4 4. Activities
- 1.5 5. Online discussions
- 1.5.1 Topic 1: The role of youth in development, especially the MDGs
- 1.5.2 Non-Violent Conflict transformation and sports for Peace
- 1.6 Main recommendations from the Online Forum
- 1.7 6. Workshop
- 1.8 Audio, Video and digital content
- 1.9 7. Outputs
- 1.10 8. Next steps
- 1.11 9. Recommendations
- 1.12 Annex
- 1.13 Group 3
Workshop 1, Draft Report
The Youth4Peace Initiative is a joint programme of the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) and the Commonwealth Youth Programme (CYP) to engage youth to develop ODL materials for their peers as a means to promote peace building in communities. The project seeks to provide an opportunity for young people in a post conflict environment to discuss their main challenges, prescribe solutions and provide relevant content that can serve as ODL materials.
Youth in peace building efforts fits very well within the Commonwealth’s agenda for respect and understanding, thus the project provides the basis to evolve appropriate policy responses to advance the agenda for improved relations, post conflict rebuilding, reconstruction and youth development. As the lead agency on youth within the Commonwealth system, CYP’s involvement in this project is strategic and provides an opportunity for further work to address the core issues that breed conflict in Africa.
This first phase of the project ran from the months March to June 2009, with mainly online discussions focused on: the role of youth in development, with a particular focus on the millennium development goals (MDGs), and the role of sports in peace building and conflict transformation. The process of determining the topics for discussion was led by the young people themselves and two out of the three originally suggested topics were extensively discussed. The project process including choosing an appropriate venue and planning the agenda for the workshop was led by the young people.
The third topic suggested for the discussion was: are the youth a curse? This topic underscores the need to extensively examine the roles young people actually play in conflict situations. While they are often perceived as victims, it is imperative to also examine the broader issues regarding the needs challenges of young people in conflict and post conflict situations and this will provide the needed information for programming in a post conflict environment. Cetrain challenges of the youth are common across post-conflict countries: poverty, lack of access to education, inadequate skills among the young people, unemployment, numerous health problems resulting from poor health infrastructure, etc.
This project helped to bring together young people across the various divides of youth organisations including youth from the media and political movements in Sierra Leone. It provided an opportunity for the young people to interact among themselves, to share their individual and institutional experiences and to suggest the next steps for the youth for peace project, this was the first time for many of the young people.
2. About Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone gained independence in 1961, from the British which had ruled it officially as a Crown Colony since 1808. British colonial rule was characterized by direct and dominant administrative rule over Freetown and its environs, and indirect rule via local “paramount chiefs” over the countryside. After independence in 1961, the country had only three "democratic" elections—in 1967, 1996 and 2007.
Poverty reduction remains a major challenge for the Government and people of Sierra Leone. The Sierra Leone Integrated Household survey conducted in 2003/2004 indicates that 70% of the population lives below the poverty line and poverty remains pervasive and endemic. Sierra Leone ranked 177 out of 177 countries in the 2007-2008 UNDP human development index with an HDI score of 0.336.
After a protracted civil war that devastated the country, the Government of Sierra Leone has made significant progress in consolidating social and economic security for its people. The country has now embarked on a transition from post-conflict recovery to broad-based growth and poverty reduction. GDP grew by 6.4 per cent in 2007. However, inflation continued to rise from 8.3 per cent in December 2006 and 13.8 percent in December 2007 to 15.75 per cent in September 2008.
According to the National Youth Policy launched in 2003, Sierra Leone is well endowed with human and natural resources. The population of about 5.2 million in 2002 is growing at 2.6 per annum. By the year 2005, it is estimated that about 55% will be youths. In fact the age distribution of the youth population (1963, 1974and 1985) suggests that youth population grew from 33.7% to 34% and to 35. =49%
respectively, with the female population always exceeding that of male. School enrolment is at a dismal rate such that UNICEF estimated that about 67 percent of primary school age children are currently not in school.
A rather dated labour force survey (1989/90) estimated that unemployment rate was about 25% and the highest was among the youth, between the ages of 18 and 35. The poverty profile affirmed that young adults aged 15-24, are amongst the poorest of the poor. Due to the war, an estimated 700,000 of the displaced with Sierra Leone were children and youth; some 9,000 were maimed, orphaned or separated from their parents. A sizeable proportion of them were combatants who currently live/make a living on the streets. Majority of these youths who were forced to flee their communities, trooped to Freetown, and other major cities like Bo and Kenema, and have become accustomed to city life. They are largely illiterate, school dropouts eking a living from petty trading, narcotic drug peddling, prostitution and theft.
These youths are bunched in poor sections of cities, and the rising number of slums in the city centre, where they hourly feed western violence-prone/pornographic movies in ubiquitous video cinema houses. The 'new mind opium' is the regular viewing of European soccer on satellite TV. Nearly every other youth in urban Sierra Leone is an avid fan of one European football club, with school-going youth devoting very little time for studies.
Narcotic drug abuse and prostitution are becoming widespread among the youth. There is a causal linkage between the desire for a daily fix and the proliferation of petty crime and theft. Narcotic drug abuse and slow economic growth is a lighted fuse on a ticking time bomb. Available evidence on the prevalence of sexually transmitted disease, including HIV/AIDS, suggests that the incidence of HIV/AIDS is on the rise. According to the UN Population Division (Department of Economic and Social Affairs). Adults (15-49 years) living with HIV/AIDS in Sierra Leone number sixty five thousand (65000, approximately 3% of the adult population).
- To provide an on-line space for dialogue on conflict, youth and sustainable development;
- To provide meeting spaces for synergies between the needs of urban and rural youths, including their needs and expectations and use them as the basis for recommendations on programme implementation.
- To develop open and distant learning material in the form of text, digital, audio or video.
The main activities of this first phase of the project are as follows:
- Identification of key youth stakeholders within Sierra Leone who served as liaison and communication link between the young people with online access and those without online access. These young people also assisted in mobilising other young people with internet access to join the different forums that were created;
- Establishment of three online spaces for discussion on facebook.com, ning.com and takingitglobal.org. The online space on takingitglobal.com presently has around 30 people subscribed, the space on ning.com has 16 people subscribed and the space on facebook.com has around 73 people subscribed. The space on ning.com and facebook.com will be used to share pictures, audio and video content related to the project, while the space on takingitglobal.org was and will be used for further discussion.
- Identification of discussion topics: the main discussion took place on the takingitglobal.org platform. After introducing the initiative, participants were encouraged to share their thoughts about possible topics to be discussed. Three main topics were discussed, and two of the topics were extensively discussed.
- Workshop: a two-day workshop was held in Freetown to develop relevant learning materials related to youth in peace building. In keeping with the objective of the project, which is focused on peer learning, the workshop provided the space for the young people to share experiences from the work they are doing, to brainstorm on issues related to the role of the youth in development and sports for peace and conflict transformation. The workshop also provided the opportunity for the young people to participate in simulations related to conflict resolution and peace negotiations. A total of 40 young people attended the workshop.
- Plotting the next steps: the workshop held in Freetown provided the opportunity for the young people to share their thoughts on the initiative and their thoughts on the next steps. A large number of the comments received focused on the need for more face to face workshops to take place and also the importance for the initiative to be spread to the regions. Spreading to the regions at this early stage of the project may pose some challenges however, as transportation within Sierra Leone may prove major challenge. Broadly, the project is welcome within Sierra Leone’s youth community and needs to be further strengthened with a higher number of community dialogue, working in close collaboration with local organisations.
- Media: there was extensive media coverage for the workshop and project activities. The rapporteur featured on the UN Radio morning show where the objectives and outcomes of the project was shared. That particular morning, the Minister of education was also a guest on the programme addressing issues related to labour unrest and educational development in Sierra Leone’s higher education institutions. There was also extensive media coverage by the local media including the state owned TV station (STV).
5. Online discussions
Topic 1: The role of youth in development, especially the MDGs
The key issues discussed under this topic are divided in the following sub-headings:
Access to education
The discussion began with comments regarding the state of the educational system in Sierra Leone and what needs to be done to facilitate improvement. Education is one of the critical MDGs. Goals 2 and 3 target universal primary education and eliminating gender disparity in access to education. The discussion started with the issue of ghost schools which was reported in the Sierra Leonean media. One participant Musa Soko said “the fact of the matter here is that, for many schools especially in the provinces, they have virtually no trained and qualified teachers and these schools are mostly not even being recognized by the government. Therefore, the educational system generally in the country especially government schools, there are whole lot of problems associated with them.”
Youth as Leaders
Increasingly development experts are in agreement about the role of youth in development process. Reporting on a conference held on the role of youth, Diana Dola of the Service for Peace put it correctly, “there were unanimous agreements across the board that the youth are the most instrumental in changing our world for the better. We are no longer the leaders of tomorrow, for tomorrow is now today. the question is, are we willing to take up the daunting yet life altering mantle that has seemingly been too heavy for our forefathers or will we go the way of regrets at what we could have done? But how can the youth take their rightful place in development processes?
William Carew, a young Sierra Leonean based in Kenya noted that “ it is very apparent for us to know that the risks young people face vary great amongst regions and countries, moreover, the local economic and cultural conditions of a country may determine its understanding of issues concerning adolescence and youths. But regardless of the socio economic political and cultural environment young people in particular are prone to the devastating problems faced by society as a result of their vulnerability. the large number of young people who are not in school or at work or in any form of education is very worrying trend, unemployment rate keep on rising, access to safe affordable youth friendly sexual reproductive health services is a major slap on the face that is leaving our sisters and brothers dying of preventable diseases.”
“For Sierra Leone, during the campaign periods when we were to elect our new government, a lot of promises were made towards the youths of this country adding that a National Youth Commission would be established to address the issues of young men and women. Two years after the elections, nothing was done or seen in that direction other than politicians moving around with their loyal youth disturbing others. This however resulted into us forming a coalition that sounded a call to Government's attention with regards the Youth Commission followed by an ultimatum. The idea was welcome by youths from all over the country and created some unrest for our leaders. The President then finally called for a dialogue during when he assured us that the Commission will be in place soonest and the work is on going… Another incident was the disturbing development with regards political party youths being involved in violent antagonism, attacking and wounding each other. At the end of it all political leaders accused each other and went as far as inciting their youths to continue the violence. Here and then we decided to quickly intervene with the help of the United Nation's Peace building office in Sierra Leone (UNIPSL) to bring together these youths into dialogue and to iron out thier differences, and to give them reasons not to continue allowing themselves to be used against eachother by these politicians. Interestingly, it was discovered that these youth wings in these political ”- Herbert Bangura.
“Sustainable Youth Livelihood and Empowerment Program: This deals with projects that directly impacts on the livelihood opportunities of young people through vocational skills training in dress-making and textiles designs. This has been proved to be workable simply because the level at which youth unemployment is rising is exceptional to the country’s development and especially in the peace consolidation process. Livelihoods through vocational skills project started in late 2007 where youth who are out of school were enrolled in worthwhile self-employment training.” Musa Soko
Challenges of youth organisations
One major challenge for youth organisations which was discussed by group members was access to funding for youth organisations. Participants called for the review of criteria regarding access to funds, in order to enable youth groups’ access resources for their programmes. The other challenge mentioned is governments’ negative perceptions of young people, which makes them often suspicious and provide very little support to mainstream youth development initiatives.
“There are organisations that render voluntary services in preaching peace and non violence and vacating for delivery of basic social services but in get funds from donor to continue playing their complimentary role in making the MDGs achievable is not there and the funders criteria are so stiff that youth organisations.” - Wurie Mamadu Tamba Barrie.
“In our African setting, there is this pre-conceived notion that young people are not capable to lead themselves. In most cases as was 98% in the past, the elderly believed that only they should be in control and direct youth activities and manage their funding. In other cases, even at present, it has been and continues to be a challenge for young people with fresh brilliant ideas to acquire funds to facilitate their projects due to the fact that they may not have the required influence (Political, Organizational etc.) to be able to access these funds.”- Herbert Bangura
“In some societies in Africa, people refer to those in the ghettos, idlers, troublemakers etc. as youth. Nevertheless, whatever the perception, youth is youth. But which are we really talking about in achieving the MGDs? Is it the marginalized youths or the mainstream? In addition, young people in some institutions look at their counterparts as doorway rival instead of complementing partners in development.” Mohammed Kaneh
Organisations supporting MDG efforts
“I will like to add to that voice that our organization has been working with the United Nations Millennium Campaign in raising public awareness and at the same time engaging policy actors towards its attainment. Furthermore, the Global Call to Action against Poverty is a global anti-poverty movement comprising different stratum of constituencies with the common goals of fighting for changes that will lead towards the attainment of the MDGs. The Children and Youth Taskforce of GCAP which Dabesaki is a part is one of those platforms that have been working in that drive so I am pretty sure that youth at different corners are doing their own little towards attaining the ambitious dreams of the MGDs.” Musa Soko
Non-Violent Conflict transformation and sports for Peace
The role of sports in peace building efforts cannot be over emphasized. Given that for many young people sports is a way of life as they are either great fans of a game or they themselves are players in the field. However the key question is how sports can contribute meaningfully to peace building efforts and facilitate the transformation of conflict?
Sports for Peace Building
Sport in most cases brings people from diverse backgrounds to a common place to be entertained and to share a passion. This makes it a viable tool to promote peace, stability and development. A number of values/ principles guiding sports were highlighted during the discussions, and they include: fair play, pursuit of excellence, respect for others, joy of effort, balance between body and mind, it is cost effective means to reach large audiences, brings people together, helps regain normality with a fun experiences in safe and stress-free spaces.
“Sport is a very powerful tool used to unite people, but when misused, it can divide and bring chaos amongst people. Sport can break barriers like nothing else. It can provide a common language, and attracts audiences across the world.” Hebert Bangura
“Sport is increasingly recognized as an important tool in helping the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. By including sport in development and peace programmes in a more systematic way, one can make full use of cost-efficient tool to help create a better world. Sport has a crucial role to play in the efforts to improve the lives of people around the world. It builds bridges between individuals and across communities, providing a fertile ground for sowing the seeds of development and peace.” Mohammed Kaneh
Also highlighted are the skills gained from sports that are useful to peace building efforts. These include the following: sport provides a platform for encouraging peaceful encounters, encouraging social contact, building friendships, and providing a shared sense of identity and belonging. Sport can reach out to socially excluded groups and connect them with people, resources, and services. Sport can teach life skills such as tolerance, teamwork, fairness, respect, self-esteem, conflict prevention, peace building, and empathy. Sport can improve fitness, foster health, and enhance mental health and well being. Sport can break down barriers and improve relationships between asylum seekers, refugees and the local population. Sport is an ideal door opener to meet with local officials, traditional leaders, and parents in order to build support for their children to participate.
“Football is the sport that brings two fighting or conflicting countries together with the spirit of fair play, frowns at discrimination and segregation, violence, racism, strongly preach about peace and oneness. The golden rule of football is fair play principles and it makes it a wonderful sport to use for peace building. Football preaches all that human rights is advocating for.“ - Wurrie MT Barrie
Conflict transformation is also a prescriptive concept. It suggests that left alone, conflict can have destructive consequences. However, the consequences can be modified or transformed so that self-images, relationships, and social structures improve as a result of conflict instead of being harmed by it. Usually this involves transforming perceptions of issues, actions, and other people or groups. Since conflict usually transforms perceptions by accentuating the differences between people and positions, effective conflict transformation can work to improve mutual understanding. Even when people's interests, values, and needs are different, even non- reconcilable, progress has been made if each group gains a relatively accurate understanding of the other.
“Non-violent transformation of conflict is as well important and in this case, we most times look at dialogue which one main non-violent tool in transforming / resolving conflicts. Red or Yellow or None? Peaceful transformation of conflict equals dialogue. our future lies in working together to promote the social, educational and citizenship values of sport, especially among the young people.” Hebert Bangura
Main recommendations from the Online Forum
- Youth development initiatives need to be led for youth by the youth. This calls for increased opportunities for the youth to be involved in development processes;
- Comprehensive and holistic approach that actually gives young people the platform to be involved in all matters of decision making pertaining their well-being should be adopted at all levels of policy-making;
- Youth have a responsibility to protect the future and should join in the implementation of the outcomes of discussions, forums, youth organisations, community based organisations in order to project our a united force speaking the same language to bring about sustainable development;
- Youth organisations should develop community based programmes at their different levels as a means to improve society and facilitate the achievement of the millennium development goals;
- Young people have to equip themselves in order to locate better job opportunities that will increase their socio-economic status in society. Government and its partners need to do more in terms of providing the relevant materials and support needed in enhancing this goal.
- The principles of sports should be adopted/ adapted as tools to facilitate peace-building and conflict resolution efforts;
- Investment should be made in providing safe spaces where young people can recreate, come together to share their challenges and identify common solutions;
- Young women’s participation in sports needs to be further promoted as a means to address the gender difference in sporting activities;
- Dialogue should be promoted as a means to promote peaceful co-existence among young people and their communities.
Workshop setting and participants
The workshop was held in the heart of Freetown at an CHASL belonging to a Christian charity organisation. Participants were drawn from different organisations with the help of Youth Action for Peace and Development, the Salone Youth and Adolescent Network on Population and Development, and the Youth Action for Peace and Development. It was ensured that there was a clear balance between the male and female participants at the workshop and emphasis was placed on the contribution of all participants throughout the workshop. All the participants at the workshop were from Freetown area. The workshop was moderated with the help of Musa Soko and Shekou Nuni.
Workshop participants shared the following expectations which served as guide for the interactions throughout the workshop.
- What is learnt at the workshop should be disseminated across communities throughout Sierra Leone;
- The workshop should lead to the development of relevant information that will transform the youth in the country, and provide an opportunity for the participants to learn practical skills that will be useful to their work;
- Gain the needed knowledge to be able to influence other youth colleagues to advance the peace process in Sierra Leone;
- To identify the key problems affecting the youth in order to come out with lasting solutions;
- To learn from the experiences of other participants at the workshop;
- What is discussed at the workshop should be put into practical use;
- Envisage the establishment of a formidable online network;
- To learn more about the role of youth in development and peace building;
- Everyone will contribute and discuss ideas about the role of youth in peace building;
- To see participants well equipped at the end of the workshop to be able to promote peace and development;
- The outcomes should influence the national development agenda;
- That all participants will serve as peace ambassadors in different provinces.
In keeping with the theme of peer learning, the young people each shared their various experiences from the work they do in their respective organisations. Each of them brought a new perspective to the sharing process. Broadly, there were five clear areas the young people’s work focused on:
- Human Rights
- Food security
- Entreprise and Skills development
- Promotion of youth participation
Audio, Video and digital content
Through the workshop, relevant audio, video and digital photo content were generated. These will be uploaded on the Youth4Peace Ning.com and facebook.com platforms. (Note: the discussion on the Youth4Peace Taking IT Global discussion group)
The workshop participants were divided in 3 working groups to discuss the two main topics of the online discussion, but to examine specific regarding the role of sports as a tool for peace building, as well as the role of youth in development processes. The guiding questions for the working groups were as follows: What do we need to learn? How do we develop content? What should be the medium of teaching and learning? Who should be the learners? How old and what are the appropriate learning activities? The outcomes of the working groups are included as annex.
Two simulation exercises were undertaken during the workshop in Freetown. The first was an attempt to agree on a development framework regarding culture, good governance and participation. The purpose of the discussion was to demonstrate how youths can be involved in governance issues.
A hypothetical situation involving three country delegations, representing the original three working groups, each delegation with a representation of 3 members, was created.
The three countries involved were Sierra Leone, Senegal and South Africa. After a 25 minutes discussion, the three delegations agreed on a compromise, allowing each delegation to have a fair part of its main proposals included in the final document. Both Senegal, South Africa and Sierra Leone agreed on the maintenance of cultural heritage and the inclusion of young people in all governance related programmes so that they too can start contributing meaningfully to the day-to-day affairs of their country.
The second simulation exercise was the creation of a hypothetical “Domocata republic” where there had been a conflict situation. The UN Secretary General had just appointed a panel of the wise involving seven eminent personalities to work with the three main interest parties, with the assistance of 5 interested member states to find a resolution to the problem.
The interest parties were two opposition parties and the head of state, who was also the head of the ruling party. After extensive presentations regarding each party’s position, the President offered to open-up the space for the inclusion of the other parties in his government. While one opposition party accepted the offer, the other opposition refuted on the grounds that their participation in the government will not necessarily create the conditions for the improved living standards of their citizens. The key lessons from each of the simulations were discussed, including the role of meeting chairs, courtesies at official meetings, meeting facilitation, time keeping, and many other lessons. Participants really appreciated the relevance of the simulation exercises.
- Online spaces created for discussion and sharing of audio, video and digital content;
- Young people on the ground in Sierra Leone identified as liaison between youth with and without internet access, as well as liaison to support further steps of the project;
- Clear identification of next steps, actions and project priorities;
- Holding of workshop with forty participants and a fair mix of young men and women;
- Identification and discussion of two main themes.
8. Next steps
The initiative was welcome by the young people who participated at the workshop and they have thus called for the following to be taken into account in future steps:
- A formidable coordination structure should be put on the ground in Sierra Leone as a means to ensure that the planning and execution of future workshops are effectively undertaken with little difficulty;
- Participation in the online platform should be prioritized, in order to ensure that the sharing of knowledge and active involvement of everyone is assured;
- There is a need to replicate the programme in other communities and regions outside of Freetown and across Sierra Leone;
- Future steps should involve other stakeholders including the government Ministry responsible for youth;
- Young people in the students movement should be involved in future steps;
- The outcome document should be shared with all participants and disseminated across various networks;
- More workshops should be held in future phases;
- Youth with disabilities should be invited to future programmes
- Future phases should take into account the need for IT learning and training among the youth;
- The network that has been created should be strengthened for further work both within and outside of the youth4peace project.
- It is the view of the rapporteur that the project be continued, this is because of the view that the first phase has laid the foundation for further work that will facilitate the achievement of both CYPs and COLs objectives;
- During the next phase, at least 3 workshops should be held (within a six month period) and part of these should be an effective wiki skills training, to provide the young people with skills that can be further used even beyond the scope of the project;
- Group work on the role of youth in development
- Working group
- What do we need to learn?
- How do we develop content?
- What should be the medium of teaching and learning?
- Who should be the learners?
- How old and what are the appropriate learning activities?
Capacity building; Tolerance among young people; Young people serving as role models; Strong networking and experience sharing among young people; Non-violence and peaceful means of resolving conflict; Extensive community sensitisation on roles and responsibilities; Sustainable on-line interactive forum; Empowerment of marginalised groups
- Drama, posters, radio programmes, television programmes, and Establishment of school clubs
- Young people and communities
- Young people between the ages of 15 – 35 years.
- Workshops, public speeches and drama should be some of the activities.
That there should be inclusion of political, economic and social networking and collaboration; Roles and responsibilities of young people in their communities
- To identify felt needs of the beneficiaries;
- Building the capacity of other people;
- Develop strategy
Community sensitisation through their local dialects, drama performances, print and electronic media
- The Community;
- The duty bearers;
- School going children between the ages of 5 – 18 years;
- Youths between the ages of 15- 35 years
- Stakeholders above 35 years;
Learning activities include experience sharing, story telling and drama performances.
- Youth advocacy for development
- Identify the issues
- Nature and scope of advocacy
- Limitations, challenges
- Facts and figures
- Banners, workshops, mass communications, radios, TV On-lin
- Grassroots, young women
- Communication skills: IT Skills training, lobbying skills, training on project writing
- Group work on the role of sports in peace building and conflict transformation
- Working group
What do we need to learn?
- How do we develop content?
- What should be the medium of teaching and learning?
- Who should be the learners?
- How old and what are the appropriate learning activities?
- Different aspects of sports that are productive for peace building
- Fair play and judgement
- Perception of those involved will be changed
- Pursuit of excellence
- Knowing the sport
- Principles and ground rules
- Applicability to promoting peace-building
- The environment
- Strategy and methodology
- Identify target
Formal / Informal
- The grass root population
- Teachers, journalists, chiefs
- Policy makers
- Children and youths
- Sports is used as recreation
- Sports bridge the gap.
- It conquers cultural diversity
Not all sports are used for peace building
- It helps to prevent conflict
- It serves as a leisure past-time
- It makes people become friends and not aggressors
- It is seen as a healthy means of competition among people
- Identify sport activities
- Establish clubs, leagues based on required criteria so that everyone can be involved
- Identify target groups
- Evaluate the process
- Radio discussions and sensitisations
- Workshops/ seminars
- Orientation etc
- Conflict parties
- Violent and non-violent communities
- Most peaceful communities
- 5 – 12 and 12 -35:
- athletics, football, volley ball, hand tennis, table tennis and basket ball
- Learn to be good winners and good sports
- Fair play
- To bring people together
- We need to learn that sport is fun
- It breaks barriers
- Know the target group
- Identify the kind of sport
- Plan and implement
- Evaluate/ feedback
- Changing the perception of people
Formal / Informal
- Everybody (children, youths and elders)
- The use of e-groups
- Formation of peer groups
- Learning/ mentorship
- Awareness raising campaigns (dialogue forums/ sensitisations