1. Liverpool, Saweda. 2002. “ICT in Education in Gambia: An Overview of Gambian Tertiary Education”. Widernet.org. http://www.widernet.org/projects/gambia/reportgambia.htm. A needs assessment of the use of ICT in Gambia's tertiary institutions of learning conducted for the WiderNet Project.
2. Jallow, Abdou K. 2002. “Report On ICT Use In Gambia College”. http://www.widernet.org/projects/gambia/IctInGambiaCollegeReprot.htm. A needs assessment of ICT use in Gambia's tertiary institutions of learning for the WiderNet Project.
3. Ng’ethe, Njuguna, N’dri Asssié-Lumumba, George Subotzky and Esi Sutherland- Addy. 2003. “Higher Education Innovations in Sub-Saharan Africa: With Specific Reference to Universities”. ADEA Working Group on Higher Education for the Partnership on Education. http://www.aau.org/wghe/publications/wghe_innovations_ref_univ.pdf. The survey sought to identify and document higher education innovations currently underway in Sub-Saharan Africa.
4. “Strategic Development Plan for Information and Communications Technology (ICT) 2003 –2005”. Association for the Development of Education in Africa. http://www.aau.org/wghe/publications/wghe_ict_strategic_plan_zimbabwe.pdf This work, for the National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, was encouraged by the Working Group on Higher Education) of the Association for the Development of Education in Africa.
5. “National ICT Strategy for Education and Training”. 2006. Kenya Ministry of Education. http://www.education.go.ke/ICTStrategy_Team.htm. The Strategy outlines outcomes, implementation, management, cost analysis and monitoring, and the evaluation processes.
6. Murray, Lize. “AVU Gap Analysis Report: August 2005”. Prepared for the Hewlett Foundation by the AVU OdeL Initiative. http://www.avu.org/acep.asp. The Gap Analysis Report describes the capacities of all potential partners in the Consortium of universities.
7. “AVU Capacity Enhancement Program (ACEP) Phase I”. 2005. African Virtual University. http://www.avu.org/acep.asp. This is a comprehensive approach to offering capacity enhancement opportunities to the AVU’s Partner Institutions.
8. “AAU Newsletter”. September-November 2005. 11(3). http://www.aau.org/newsletters/Vol11No3.pdf. This issue has articles on: the Cameroon interuniversity network, Kenya’s education network that provides interconnectivity to all institutions of higher learning; the UbuntuNet Alliance for bandwidth consistency in higher learning institutions; the ICT situation at the Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; and the Forum, a national network in Nigerian Higher Education Institutions.
9. Twinomugisha, A., J. Magochi and S. Aluoch. “Bandwidth Consolidation and Management for Universities”. October 2000. The Partnership for Higher Education in Africa. http://www.foundation-partnership.org/pubs/avu/index.php. A report prepared by the African Virtual University for the Partnership.
10. Zaparovanny,Y. “Information and Communication Technologies Usage in Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa”. 2004. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education (IITE). http://www.iite-unesco.org/. This book contains 22 articles, nine of which are “state of the art” country studies. The largest article is the Pan African Study of “E-Campus” that gives perspectives of several higher education institutions and desk-based research on 6 other countries.
11. “A Rural ICT Toolkit for Africa – African Connection. Centre for Strategic Planning”. November 2006. The World Bank. http://www.infodev.org/en/Project.11.html. The tool kit provides a platform for actors in rural ICT development by giving detailed guidelines for preparing, documenting, measuring the impact of, and justifying the financial start up support for ICT projects in rural areas.
12. “Kampala varsity in e-library bid “. October 2006. Uganda: East African Business Week. http://www.busiweek.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2174&Itemid=39. Kampala International University is to launch a digital library to support distance learning programmes.
13. “VSAT Project for Pan African Countries by Indian Government “. August 2005. Ghana: Ministry of Communications. http://www.moc.gov.gh/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=24&mode=thread&order=0&thold=0. The Minister of Communications has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Telecommunications Consultants India LTD to establish a VSAT based Tele-Medicine and Tele-Education Infrastructure for African Countries.
14. “Virtual University to Become a Reality in August 2007 “. September 6, 2006. Commonwealth News and Information Service. Issue 301. The Commonwealth of Learning’s Virtual University for Small States of the Commonwealth (VUSSC) initiative is set to become a reality in August 2007 with the launch of two of its programmes.
15. Juma, M. N. and D’Antoni, S. (ed). “The Virtual University: Models and messages, Lessons from Case Studies”. 2006. UNESCO (IIEP). http://www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity/media/document/Ch10_AVU_Juma.pdf. The report, based on the experience of Kenyatta University, as part of the AVU, highlights the challenges faced by many African institutions as well as experiences gained in using technology to address some of them.
16. Sagna, O. and D’Antoni, S. (ed). “The Virtual University Models and messages”. 2006. UNESCO (IIEP). http://www.unesco.org/iiep/virtualuniversity/media/document/Ch5_CNFD_Sagna.pdf. The Campus numérique francophone de Dakar, Senegal, inaugurated in 2000, functions essentially as a well equipped resource centre, promoting and supporting distance and ICT-enabled education through the production of multimedia content, the promotion of distance education courses and CD-ROMs, an incubator for innovative firms, the development of digital literacy in students and teachers, and access to online information.
17. Steiner, R., Nyaska, T., Jensen, M., and Karanja, G. “African Tertiary Institution Connectivity Survey (ATICS)”. World Bank Institute. http://www.dgroups.org/groups/cgiar/InternetAfrica/docs/ATICS2004Report.pdf?ois=no. This is a survey of Internet connectivity needs and policy in 83 Higher Education and research institutions in 40 countries that are associated with the African Virtual University (AVU).
18. “Work on UNESCO’s ICT Competency Standards for Teachers enters final phase”. October 2006. UNESCO Daily News Service. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=23023&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. An international standard for integrating ICTs in teaching.
19. "UNESCO to Sponsor Pilot Satellite Distance Learning Course on Telecentres in Africa “. May 2004. UNESCO Daily News Service. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13920&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. This project demonstrated and tested the potential of digital radio to deliver low budget, effective, multimedia based and real time distance education to rural learners in Ethiopia, Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.
20. “Towards a Strategy on Developing African Teacher Capabilities in the Use of Information and Communication Technology”. October 2004. SchoolNet Africa. http://www.schoolnetafrica.net/fileadmin/resources/Towards_a_Strategy_on_Developing_African_Teacher_Capabilit._01.pdf. A research summary of teacher training in ICT in Africa at pre and in-service levels.
21. “Education – Under Construction”. November 2003. UNESCO. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-. There is growing commitment by African governments to the development of ICTs and using these technologies for Distance Education. Additionally, there are strong indicators that open and distance learning is becoming more central to the education policy of many countries.
22. Jokivirta. L. “Foreign Higher Education Activity in Francophone Africa “. April 2006. World Education News and Reviews. http://www.wes.org/ewenr/06apr/feature.htm. A description of the most recent online foreign initiatives in Francophone Africa.
23. Martey, A. “ICT in Distance Education in Ghana”. 2004. Library Hi Tech News incorporating Online and CD Notes. 21(5):16-18(3). Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mcb/239/2004/00000021/00000005/art00006. This study describes the ICT scene in Ghana from 1996 to 2004. The emphasis is on the benefits that distance learners in Ghana will derive from an ICT-enhanced distance education.
24. “African Virtual University “. 2005. Nairobi, Kenya: African Virtual University. http://www.avu.org/about.asp. The objective of the AVU is to build capacity and support economic development by leveraging the power of modern telecommunications technology to provide world-class quality education and training programs to students and professionals in Africa. The Open, Distance and eLearning (Odel) initiative seeks to enhance the capacity of AVU’s partner institutions to develop, deliver, and manage their own OdeL programs.
25. “Makerere to set up an ICT centre in Africa”. August 14, 2006. i4d. http://i4donline.net/news/news-details.asp?catid=13&newsid=5264. The Makerere University Faculty of Computing and Information Technology has won an Africa Union bid to set up an ICT institution to offer ICT training for 13 countries.
26. “Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA)”. November 2005. Open University. http://www.open.ac.uk/education-and-languages/about_the_faculty/case_studies/teacher-education.php. TESSA will provide online training that educators can download and print or burn on CDs for use in schools across Africa.
27. Edukugho, Emmanual. “Teachers must pass ICT test —TRCN”. October 5, 2006. Vanguard Media Ltd. http://www.vanguardngr.com/articles/2002/features/education/edu105102006.html. The acquisition of basic ICT skills and capabilities is now part of the National Minimum Standards for Teacher Education and Practice in Nigeria.
28. Ouma, Ayoo P. “A National Distance Education (DE) Solution for Uganda: Innovative Application of Digital ICTs to Overcome the Barriers of the Existing Digital Divide”. October 29, 2003. Paper presented at the IITE Specialized Training on ICTs for Distance e-Learning for Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa conference at the University of South Africa. http://www.iucea.org/publications/DE_Solution_%20Uganda.doc. A comprehensive analysis of the Ugandan higher education system in terms of the opportunities for ICT applications and the constraints that need to be addressed.
29. “The AVU Teacher Education Project”. http://www.avu.org/documents/Fact-Sheet.pdf. A description of how the African Virtual University has implemented a Teacher Education Program, funded by the African Development Ban), in ten countries.
30. “Somalia: Online Distance Learning Initiative fact sheet”. August 2006. UNDP and World Bank. http://www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2006/undp-som-26aug.pdf. The ODL Learning Initiative is using Very Small Aperture Terminals to access internet connectivity for knowledge resources and interactive learning in selected Somali universities/ tertiary institutions.
31. “Nigeria gets $200m to boost ICT in rural areas”. October 27, 2006. The Tide Online. http://www.thetidenews.com/article.aspx?qrDate=09/23/2006&qrTitle=Nigeria%20gets%20$200m%20to%20boost%20ICT%20in%20rural%20areas&qrColumn=NEWS. The loan will be used to deploy the National Technology Development Agency’s Mobile Internet Units to rural areas as part of the effort to stimulate interest in ICT in the country.
32. Martey, Alfred. “ICT in Distance Education in Ghana”. 2004. Library Hi Tech News incorporating Online and CD Notes. 21(5). This article describes the ICT scene in Ghana from 1996 to 2004. The emphasis is on the benefits that distance learners in Ghana will derive from an ICT-enhanced distance education. 31. Steiner, Roy, Nyasha Tirivayi, Mike Jensen and Karanja Gakio. “The African Tertiary Institutions Connectivity Survey Report”. 2004. Commissioned by the World Bank Institute. http://www.dgroups.org/groups/cgiar/InternetAfrica/docs/ATICS2004Report.pdf The report is based on a survey of 83 institutions in 40 countries to discover their needs and willingness to participate in a ‘bandwidth purchasing club’.
33. “Internet in Higher Education, Research, Science, and Technology Development in Sub-Saharan Africa”. 2006. Dgroups. http://www.dgroups.org/groups/cgiar/InternetAfrica/index.cfm?op=dsp_resource_details&resource_id=33068&cat_id=17316. Summary of three weeks online discussion on the Internet in higher education, science and technology development in Sub-Saharan Africa, with about 280 participants, the majority from differing African countries.
34. Josué, Tetang T. “Some facts about Cameroon”. September 2006. Development through Dialogue, an online discussion forum. http://www.dgroups.org/groups/cgiar/InternetAfrica/index.cfm?op=dsp_showmsg&listname=InternetAfrica&msgid=444617&cat_id=17314.
35. Contribution to Internet in Higher Education, Research, Science, and Technology Development in Sub-Saharan Africa.
36. “UNESCO preparing standards for integrating ICT into teaching”. November 1, 2006. ICT in Education.
37. http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=23023&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. A UNESCO initiative designed to develop a common core syllabus defining various ICT competency skills for teachers that professional development providers can use to prepare learning materials is nearing completion.
38. Aguti, Jessica N. and William J. Fraser. “Integration of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in The Distance Education Bachelor of Education Programme, Makerere University, Uganda”. July 2006. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE. ISSN 1302-6488. 7(3) Article 7. http://tojde.anadolu.edu.tr/tojde23/articles/article7.htm. The study examined what technologies the stakeholders of this programme have access to, what technologies they believe can be used for the programme and for what purpose, and, finally, what prerequisites should be put in place for this technology to work.
39. Ayoo, Philip Ouma. “A National Distance Education (DE) Solution for Uganda”. October 2003. The Inter-University Council for East Africa. http://www.iucea.org/publications.php?publication_id=37. The paper describes the institutions in Uganda, the constraints faced re ICT applications, and suggests strategies for overcoming them.
40. “Continued Assistance to Connectivity for Educator Development (Connect-ED) Phase II, USAID/Uganda”. International Education Systems. . http://ies.edc.org/ourwork/project.php?id=3448. A USAID funded project that set up computer centers and Internet points at Kyambogo University) and eight Primary Teacher’s Colleges throughout the country to provide computer literacy and materials development training for teachers. Project date: 2003-2005.
41. Perraton, Hillary. October 2001. “Teacher Education Through Distance Learning”. UNESCO. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=45578&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. A summary of case studies in Burkino Faso, Nigeria, and South Africa to ascertain what methods were being used and how effective they were.
42. Coupe, Jeffrey et al. “Is Constructivism Universal: In Search of Meaningful Technology in Morocco and Namibia”. This paper is reprinted with the permission of UNESCO/IIEP. It will appear as Chapter 8 in Adapting Technology for School Improvement: A Global Perspective, edited by D.W.Chapman and L. Mahlc. 2003. http://www.eldis.org/cf/search/disp/DocDisplay.cfm?Doc=DOC7879&Resource=f1ict. The experience suggests that education technology programs can enhance the quality of professional training as well as strengthen education reforms by giving ownership to the involved teachers.
43. Cisler, S. and K. Yocam. 2003. “Connect-ED Evaluation (Uganda)”. EduAction. http://www.eldis.org/static/DOC7844.htm. The overall task of this project was to integrate computers into the teaching methods of Primary Teacher College faculty and build capacity among staff by establishing computer-assisted teacher training laboratories and resource centres. The report outlines project results, impacts and recommendations for the future of Connect-ED.