Africa: National Movements and the New States

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A. The Development of African Nationalism

African nationalism and the impact of World War II

(a) The Italo-Ethiopian crisis.

(b) An epilogue to the Partition and a new style of aggression in Africa.

(c) Breakdown of the League's world security system.

(d) Reactions over the entire Black world.

(e) The resistance movement in Ethiopia and the problems it created when Haile Selassie returned.

(f) The fall of Haile Selassie and its social, political and economic effects.

Effects of the war in Africa

(a) Increased urbanization and dependence upon local products.

(b) Greater autonomy for settler communities.

(c) Recruitment of African armies for service overseas.

(d) North Africa: an actual threat of war.

The war settlement and reconstruction

(a) The question of the Mandates and former Italian colonies.

(b) The United Nations.

(c) Small concessions in Africa: The Brazzavile Conference, New Constitutions in British colonies during the forties.

The de-colonization of Asia and its effect on Africa

(a) Independence and partition in India.

(b) Israel and the Arab League.

(c) Indonesian Independence and the Bandung Conference.


From Farouk to Nasser.

The role of Political Parties with special reference to East, West and Central Africa

(a) Mass parties versus Elitist parties.

(b) Modernizing agencies.

(c) Promotion of political education.

(d) Nationalist, ethnic, religious parties.

The Struggle for Self-Government

(a) Ghana: Nationalism and Pan-Africanism.

(b) Competing ethnic groups and federalism in Nigeria and Congo (the outcome of the politics of Lugard and Leopold).

(c) Unity or balkanization in French West African and British Central Africa.

(d) Pan-Islamism and nationalism in the Sudan.

(e) Politics and nationalism in Uganda.

(f) Monarchial leadership in Morocco.

(g) Tanzania nationalism.

(h) Kenya: Mau Mau and the land question.

(i) Welding two colonial traditions - Cameroon and Somalia.

(j) Reformed Islam: Tunisia.

(k) The Malagasy War.

(l) The Algerian War.

(m) The Angolan or Mozambiquan War.

(n) The Zanzibar revolution.

(o) The Rwanda revolution.

The Frustration of the African Revolution: The White South

(a) Afrikaaner nationalism, Apartheid.

(b) The creation of white settler colonies in Mozambique and Angola after 1945. The growth and collapse of mass nationalism.

(c) African resistance: national politics and suppression of political activity.

(d) The retreat of the White South: independence of Zambia and Malawi.

(e) Rhodesia: Unilateral Declaration of Independence and subservience to South Africa.

(f) The growing solidarity of the White South and new overtures to Black Africa.

(g) From colonial rule to Nationhood: Malawi, Swaziland, Lesotho, Botswana and their relations with South Africa.

(h) Liberation Movements - Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Angola.

Separatism and ethnic nationalism

Katanga, Southern Sudan, Chad and Biafra.

Problems of African leadership

(a) Comparison of different types of leaders.

(b) Biographies of some African leaders, at least one from East, West, North and Central Africa.

B. The New States: Modernization and Internal Problems

Creation of national unity and ideology

(a) Berbers and Arabs in Morocco.

(b) Islam and the Senegalese nationality.

(c) Swahili and the Tanzanian nationality.

(d) Privileged ethnic groups.

Nationalizing the education system

(a) Increasing state control of education.

(b) Africanizing syllabuses and personnel.

(c) A balanced education; academic, technical, agricultural. Mass or elitist education. National Service.

(d) Literacy campaign.

(e) The role of the schools in national unity.

The Economy: Problems of control and development

(a) Priorities in development planning.

(b) Foreign firms and banks.

(c) The Asian monopoly of trade in East Africa.

(d) Capitalism and nationalized commerce and industry.

(e) International Aid and Self-reliance.

(f) Embryonic industrialism: import substitution.

(g) Taxation.

(h) Communications.

Modernizing Agriculture

(a) Cash crops and food production. Diversification.

(b) Redressing the colonial imbalance between export crops and food production.

(c) Large-scale nationalized farming.

(d) Peasant agriculture and cooperative farming.

(e) Stabilizing prices.

Social Problems

(a) School leavers and unemployment.

(b) Urbanization and slums.

(c) Rural depopulation, development and amenities.

(d) Social inequality between the elite and the masses.

(e) Clash of cultural values.

C. External Problems of the New States

Liberation of Southern Africa

(a) Action through the United Nations, Organization of African Unity and the Commonwealth.

(b) Independence by war or diplomacy.

(c) Counter subversion and counter diplomacy by the White South.

(d) The Lusaka Declaration.

African Unity

(a) Changing concepts of Pan-Africanism.

(b) The Organization of African Unity.

(c) Ideological groupings - Casablanca and Monrovia.

(d) Regional groupings - Mali Federation; Ghana-Guinea Union, Arab League.

(e) Economic groupings - East African Community and the Entente Council.

(f) Relations with non-African groupings.


(a) Colonial mentality and the "Mother-Country" complex.

(b) Military alliances.

(c) International finance.

(d) Subversion.


Relations between Old and New States.

D. The Military in Africa

The role of the army

The people's army and the professional army.

Military Coups and governments

(a) Protecting the democratic process or power seeking.

(b) Army discontent.

(c) Reaction to corruption.

(d) Collapse of civilian rule.

(e) Reaction against left-wing government and/or foreign intrigue.

(f) The strengths and weaknesses of army rule.