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The Syllabus

          7.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases

          Learning Outcomes
          Candidates should be able to:
                       (a) describe the meanings of the terms acid and alkali in terms of the ions they contain or produce in aqueous solution and their effects on Universal Indicator paper
                       (b) describe how to test hydrogen ion concentration and hence relative acidity using Universal Indicator paper and the pH scale
                       (c) describe the characteristic properties of acids as in reactions with metals, bases and carbonates
                       (d) describe qualitatively the difference between strong and weak acids in terms of the extent of ionisation
                       (e) describe neutralisation as a reaction between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions to produce water,

                                                  H+ + OH− → H2O
                       (f) describe the importance of controlling the pH in soils and how excess acidity can be treated using calcium hydroxide
                       (g) describe the characteristic properties of bases in reactions with acids and with ammonium salts
                       (h) classify oxides as acidic, basic or amphoteric, based on metallic/non-metallic character

        7.2 Preparation of salts

        Learning Outcomes
       Candidates should be able to:
                      (a) *describe the techniques used in the preparation, separation and purification of salts as examples of some of the techniques specified in Section 1.2(a)

                             (methods for preparation should include precipitation and titration together with reactions of acids with metals, insoluble bases and insoluble carbonates)
                      (b) describe the general rules of solubility for common salts to include nitrates, chlorides (including silver and lead), sulfates (including barium, calcium and lead), carbonates, hydroxides, Group I cations and ammonium salts
                      (c) suggest a method of preparing a given salt from suitable starting materials, given appropriate information