Academic writing/Using other people's work
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Using other people's work
There are two principle ways that you can incorporate the work and writing of others to support the premises of your argument: quotations and paraphrasing.
- A quotation is a group of words taken from an essay, article, or book written by someone else and incorporated into your essay.
- A paraphrase is the rewriting of someone else's ideas or words using your own words rather than theirs.
However, you must be mindful of two things when using quotations or paraphrases.
- The external work must be carefully crafted so that it supports YOUR work.
- The authorship of the external work must be properly acknowledged (or you may be accused of cheating!!)
Quotations can be very powerful. They lend authority to your argument, provide insights from established researchers, and illustrate the prevalence or pervasiveness of your position. BUT, a quotation needs to be worked in to your own argument.TO DO THIS YOU WILL NEED TO
When should you paraphrase?
- the quotation is long and wordy
- the words in the quotation are not powerful
- the source of the quotation is unknown or dubious
There are two reasons for acknowledging the authors of external work.
- To acknowledge and or protect intellectual property
- To provide resources for readers
There are two ways that the acknowledgment must be made:
- The citation: CITATIONS are the way of flagging a quotation or a paraphrase, and identifying where someone else's work or views are being reproduced. Usually, a citation contains brief information about the origin of the quotation or paraphrase. Citations may be made by footnote, endnote, or by placing the authors' names in brackets after the occurrence of their work. Deciding the form of citation you should use depends on the instructions your lecturer has given you.
- The reference list: REFERENCE LISTS are lists containing detailed information about the origin of the quotation or paraphrase. It is placed at the end of the essay, and will either be in alphabetical order or in order of citation, depending on the academic style used in your course.