User:Vtaylor/Engineering

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  • Engineering thinking - making 'things' that work and making 'things' work better
  • According to the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, engineering occurs when the “knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences gained by study, experience, and practice is applied with judgment to develop ways to utilize economically the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.”

Starting with Engineering as the center of the universe, all the other subjects are supporting players. Scientists discover things that engineers use to provide a solution to a social need.


2017


2016

  • e4k - interesting engineering news, general audience (kids) * previously focus on teaching - lesson plans, activities
  • 4Cs Collaboration - working with a group to achieve shared goals * Creativity - new ways of solving problems and developing new ideas * Critical Thinking - making a decision or forming an opinion by exploring various ideas and sources of information * Communication - listening and sharing ideas effectively using a variety of tools, such as media and technology


100 Innovations

AN EXHIBITION AT THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, STOCKHOLM, 2012 – 2015

The 100 most important innovations in history rated by the Swedes The National Museum of Science and Technology has put the Swedish people to the task of singling out the 100 most important innovations of all time. These are the innovations displayed in the 100 innovations exhibition. Agriculture Agriculture Antibiotics * [http://engineering4kids.wikispaces.com/Pharmaceutical Pharmaceutical] * Chemical * Healthcare Clothes Clothes Computer games Computer games Construction Construction Contraceptives Contraceptives Dialysis Numbers Digits Dynamite The electricity Electricity The glass Glass The GPS GPS Hairstyling Hairstyling Hydro power Hydro power The insulin Insulin Kitchenware Kitchenware Make-up Make-up Metal processing Metal processing Money Money Mp3 Mp3 Nuclear power Nuclear power The paper Paper Pasteurisation Pasteurisation printing Printing Refuse collection Refuse collection Shoes Shoes The soap Soap Soft drinks Soft drinks Solar power Solar energy The spectacles Spectacles Test-tube fertilisation Test-tube fertilisation Tetra Pak Tetra Pak The adjustable spanner The adjustable spanner The aeroplane The aeroplane the ball The ball The ball bearing The ball bearing An old bed factory The bed The bicycle The bicycle Cargo ship The boat and the ship The camera The camera Volkswagen Van The car The CD The CD The clock and watch The clock and watch The compass The compass The computer The computer The defibrillator The defibrillator The dishwasher The dishwasher The excavator The excavator The fireplace The fireplace The generator The generator Gunpowder The gunpowder The heart-lung machine The heart-lung machine The heat pump The heat pump The internal combustion engine The internal combustion engine The internet The internet The light bulb The light bulb The lighthouse The lighthouse The lock The lock The loadspeaker The loudspeaker The matchstick The matchstick The micro wave The microwave oven The mobile telephone The mobile telephone The motorcycle The motorcycle The movie The movie The nail and screw The nail and screw The pacemaker The pacemaker The pen The pen the pram and pushchair The pram and pushchair The propeller The propeller A radiator on a meadow The radiator The radio The radio The railway The railway The refrigerator The refrigerator The robot The robot The satelite The satellite the sewage system The sewage system The sewing machine The sewing machine The skateboard The skateboard The space rockot The space rocket The steam engine The steam engine The stearin candle The stearin candle The stove The stove The telegraph The telegraph The telephone The telephone The telescope The telescope A television The television The toothbrush The toothbrush The transistor The transistor The vaccine The vaccine The vaccum cleaner The vacuum cleaner The washing machine The washing machine The weaving loom The weaving loom The wheel The wheel The written language The written language The X-ray The X-ray the zip fastener The zip fastener Ultrasound Ultrasound Water purification Water purification The weapons Weapons Wind power Wind power

  • e4k - r0 r1 r2 0e 1e 2e 0a 1a 2a 0c d * ask... Shop tools. hand tools. Cable car. Mayan pyramid. Sound recording
  • kids Everywhere 3d spatial reasoning lego isographic puzzles - moas activities. girls club. * engineering is elementary girl scouts mad science lab
  • k-8 teaching engineering - engEd > byx * engineering everywhere - 5 minutes max * lessons virtual classroom walk * road show * ? museum online


  • curiosity * gateway competency - respond to the complexity and changeability. inquisitiveness, a bias toward asking and learning, and an authentic interest in others and what they might have to share. use questions strategically, as a tool to advance insight, understanding and action. approach life assuming that people are generally complex and interesting.
  • problem solving - mental models - problem solving, problem identification, kids version, find the right problem to solve. 5 whys


LEGO / engineering

  • MOAS - volunteer - LEGO - summer, events, school visits * other engineering
  • Block Party - activities, resources, pinterest, e4k - MOAS


2016

NASA Educator Professional Development (EPD) http://www.txstate-epdc.net/events/

Sign up for NASA Express http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/Express_Landing.html

NASA EPD Educators blog http://www.txstate-epdc.net/blog/

Upcoming webinars http://www.txstate-epdc.net/events/

BEST Curriculum site http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/best/

Wait Music is by Astro Capella http://www.astrocappella.com/




  • NASA Engineering 101 -m NASA BEST resources - youtube promo enginerey is everywhere. guides


  • SAT Math score not good predictor of females' success in engineering - "some" school(s) reduced minimum score required for admissions and females did fine * increased female enrollment to 30% - Big Beacon - Loui * engineering education - journal * "scholarship" - transition, implementing research
  • Why should children learn about engineering? - Our goal is to not only make children aware of the engineering profession and its impact on their lives, but also to help them understand other subjects more deeply through engineering. Our hope is to create a learning environment that engages all children and helps them to see themselves as the engineers who will be designing the future.


simple machines

  • machines - images
  • your favorites
  • simple - everywhere
  • use together to get something more complex


thinking

  • Engineering everywhere - designed world, purpose built
  • Engineering is Elementary - Boston
  • ieee - Integrating Engineering in Elementary Education
  • E3 - elementary engineering extravaganza - U of Pittsburgh SWE

Activities . Learn more...


Stuff, objects, artifacts

  • EiE - timers, bioplastics, urban landscapes, insulated homes, safety helmets, ice cream
  • smartphone * International Space Station * garbage truck * outboard motor / fishing rod and reel * burger and fries - gas grill * carton of juice * roads, bridges * prosthetic arm * app to "try on" clothing * 3d printing polycotton clothing * assisstive apps, devices
  • design thinking, requirements, user interface, materials, mechanics / machines - IDEO design teams


Introducing engineering

  • Description
  • Blueprint - overview, science / engineering, problem solving, questions formulation, engineering design process, engineering activities, e4k stories, e4k event, scary ideas
  • Learning pathway - engineering / society / science, engineering design process, technology is a tool
  • Assessment - add to engineering4kids stories collection, activity event


Themes

  • How do you know that? - engineering models, measurement, observation - microscope, telescope, sensors, laser measurement
  • WOW! That's Engineering / Engineering Everywhere - everyday familiar objects, mimicking nature - ratchet joint

“trust,” “courage,” “joy,” “connection,” and “openness” (the five pillars of transformation)

Unleashing 5 Trust ! Courage ! Initiative ! Failure ! Authentic learning

NLQ (noticing, listening, and questioning) skills of professional coaching


Society : Engineering : Science - Venn diagram - working together - discovery, design

Engineering : Technology : Math

Engineering Design Process - problem solving, formulating questions, process


How might we WHAT for WHOM in order to CHANGE something?

  • Prosthetic hand for kid made with a 3D printer - Material, Chemical, Mechanical
  • Haiti water purification system
  • Reef restoration
  • Drones for coastal environment monitoring
  • Science - Physical Science, Life Science, Earth Science

Math

Engineering / Technology

process, analysis, design, test, refine, improve


How might we WHAT for WHOM in order to CHANGE something?

  • Ask (What? Ask questions, understand the need, identify the problem, define)
  • Imagine (So what? Imagine, brainstorm, explore, discover)
  • Plan (Now what? Plan, design)
  • Create (Do it. Create, try it out)
  • Improve (If this then what? Improve, make it better)


Technology is a tool

  • digital technologies have “dissolved into use” and become more or less invisible.


Asking Questions & Defining Problems

Asking questions is the first step in both science and engineering.

  • Questions allow scientists to direct inquiry with a goal of understanding the phenomena in the Universe.
  • Questions allow engineers to define problems that require solutions.

Learning by asking questions, using the Question Formulation Technique (QFT) is a great addition to the Engineering Design Process. The Question Formulation Technique TM has just 3 steps.

  1. PRODUCE Your Own Questions
  2. IMPROVE Your Questions
  3. PRIORITIZE Your Questions

The folks at the Right Question Institute use the Question Formulation Technique to help people all over the world solve problems in education, healthcare, voter education to come up with innovative workable solutions.


K-8 Engineering

  • language arts - elements of stories - Three Little Pigs houses,
  • math
  • science - instruments, measurement, systems, control
  • art - structures, objects, perspective, shadow, reflection, color
  • music - instrument design, construction



Changing Engineering Education

  • "good" engineering students aren't necessarily good practicing engineers - emphasis on right answer, "one of you won't be here..." cf support to help everyone be successful, connections to real world, aha moments
  • transferable skills as well as process
  • Kirton Adaptable / Innovation range


Learn more...



Engineering & Technology


Outline

  • themes - aviation, robotics, autonomous cars
  • intro
  • engineering skills - Technical Skills, Communication Skills, Interpersonal Skills, Problem Solving and Critical Thinking, Enthusiasm, Commitment and Motivation
  • challenges, projects
  • Spatial visualization - hands on, drawing, making, test
  • simple machines, complex
  • software, electronics - littlebits - steam kits / 4 kids per set in classroom
  • manufacturing
  • reverse engineering
  • engineering design process * ABCD Ask. Brainstorm imagine research. plan Create. Do it again repeat improve * littlebits - Create Play Remix Share - invention log - use different color for each remix * karret - Care Think Design Act - ok but not as good
  • testing - user, quality, requirements, documentation
  • I failed today
  • reverse engineering
  • communication - notes, writing, presentation
  • Project management - cost, schedule, people


Teaching engineering


from engineering everywhere

SWE Outreach - OUTREACH.SWE.ORG - March 2016

  • 887 Outreach Events Reported
  • 82% of events had a hands-on component
  • 300+ Sections reported an Outreach Event
  • 148 events reported in February, the busiest month Feb 2016
  • 68,455 Girls attended events that a SWE member volunteered at
  • 7,466 SWE Member Volunteer Occasions
  • 33,797 Parents & Educators attended events that a SWE member volunteered at
  • 38% of events were run with a Partner Organization


  • Why should children learn about engineering? - Our goal is to not only make children aware of the engineering profession and its impact on their lives, but also to help them understand other subjects more deeply through engineering. Our hope is to create a learning environment that engages all children and helps them to see themselves as the engineers who will be designing the future.

simple machines

  • machines - images
  • your favorites
  • simple - everywhere
  • use together to get something more complex

thinking

  • Engineering everywhere - designed world, purpose built
  • Engineering is Elementary - Boston
  • ieee - Integrating Engineering in Elementary Education
  • E3 - elementary engineering extravaganza - U of Pittsburgh SWE

Activities - http://wikieducator.org/User:Vtaylor/Engineering_everywhere/Activities * Learn more... http://wikieducator.org/User:Vtaylor/Engineering_everywhere/Learn_more...


Stuff, objects, artifacts

  • EiE - timers, bioplastics, urban landscapes, insulated homes, safety helmets, ice cream
  • smartphone * International Space Station * garbage truck * outboard motor / fishing rod and reel * burger and fries - gas grill * carton of juice * roads, bridges * prosthetic arm * app to "try on" clothing * 3d printing polycotton clothing * assisstive apps, devices
  • design thinking, requirements, user interface, materials, mechanics / machines - IDEO design teams


Introducing engineering

  • Description
  • Blueprint - overview, science / engineering, problem solving, questions formulation, engineering design process, engineering activities, e4k stories, e4k event, scary ideas
  • Learning pathway - engineering / society / science, engineering design process, technology is a tool
  • Assessment - add to engineering4kids stories collection, activity event


Themes

  • How do you know that? - engineering models, measurement, observation - microscope, telescope, sensors, laser measurement
  • WOW! That's Engineering / Engineering Everywhere - everyday familiar objects, mimicking nature - ratchet joint

“trust,” “courage,” “joy,” “connection,” and “openness” (the five pillars of transformation)

Unleashing 5 Trust ! Courage ! Initiative ! Failure ! Authentic learning

NLQ (noticing, listening, and questioning) skills of professional coaching


Society : Engineering : Science - Venn diagram - working together - discovery, design

Engineering : Technology : Math

Engineering Design Process - problem solving, formulating questions, process


How might we WHAT for WHOM in order to CHANGE something?

  • Prosthetic hand for kid made with a 3D printer - Material, Chemical, Mechanical
  • Haiti water purification system
  • Reef restoration
  • Drones for coastal environment monitoring
  • Science - Physical Science, Life Science, Earth Science

Math

Engineering / Technology

process, analysis, design, test, refine, improve


How might we WHAT for WHOM in order to CHANGE something?

  • Ask (What? Ask questions, understand the need, identify the problem, define)
  • Imagine (So what? Imagine, brainstorm, explore, discover)
  • Plan (Now what? Plan, design)
  • Create (Do it. Create, try it out)
  • Improve (If this then what? Improve, make it better)


Technology is a tool

  • digital technologies have “dissolved into use” and become more or less invisible.


Asking Questions & Defining Problems

Asking questions is the first step in both science and engineering.

  • Questions allow scientists to direct inquiry with a goal of understanding the phenomena in the Universe.
  • Questions allow engineers to define problems that require solutions.

Learning by asking questions, using the Question Formulation Technique (QFT) is a great addition to the Engineering Design Process. The Question Formulation Technique TM has just 3 steps.

  1. PRODUCE Your Own Questions
  2. IMPROVE Your Questions
  3. PRIORITIZE Your Questions

The folks at the Right Question Institute use the Question Formulation Technique to help people all over the world solve problems in education, healthcare, voter education to come up with innovative workable solutions.


K-8 Engineering

  • language arts - elements of stories - Three Little Pigs houses,
  • math
  • science - instruments, measurement, systems, control
  • art - structures, objects, perspective, shadow, reflection, color
  • music - instrument design, construction



Changing Engineering Education

  • "good" engineering students aren't necessarily good practicing engineers - emphasis on right answer, "one of you won't be here..." cf support to help everyone be successful, connections to real world, aha moments
  • transferable skills as well as process
  • Kirton Adaptable / Innovation range


Learn more...


2015

  • e4k blog - diigo rss e4k > we > wp

CER - Claim, Evidence, Reasoning - rubric, dad is an alien, smarter every day videos


concept mapping - help engineering instructors improve the effectiveness of the instructions they give their students for concept mapping to meet a particular problem. For example, if a problem requires a high level of detail, an instructor may need to provide different instruction and motivation for different students in order to achieve their desired results, as their students’ cognitive styles (if more innovative) may not facilitate the production of detail in their mapping. A similar approach would be required if a problem requires a more “abstract” map from more adaptive students, who may need special reminders (or instruction) to help them produce a “big picture” view versus minute detail. These and similar interventions will require further investigation in future projects, once the relationships between cognitive style and concept mapping uncovered here have been fully explored and validated.

  • five basic pillars to transform engineering education: Joy, Trust, Courage, Openness, and Community. “Trust is vital,” explained Goldberg. “Trust leads to courage, to risk being wrong, which leads to initiative - that is how someone gets unleashed.” ... according to Goldberg. “We need to recognize that we need two types of engineers, a narrowly trained engineer who is expert in certain fields and the broader innovator,” he explained. It is just that the universities have concentrated on the first to the exclusion of the second. --New Engineers, New (Fun!) Education

engineering - women

  • preparation, awareness ? careers choice preference evaluations > engineering ? gender
  • admissions
  • curriculum

tcb continuum

  • working engineers + 5yrs, graduate engineers, admitted, considered
  • airline pilots
  • medical doctors


factors ?

  • comfort with mainly guys in class / work
  • expectations - type/amount of coursework, direct application / theory
  • personal value proposition / uncertainty of return on $ / scholarships / financial aid
  • self-confidence - academic, personal
  • high school math, science
  • mentors, role models
  • career goals - path to do that
  • support - academic, family, friends, financial


admissions data

  • applied, accepted, enrolled, graduated, scholarships, financial aid


curriculum

  • emphasis on math, physics - gatekeepers, barrier
  • visualization / memorization

above average - what are they doing differently, why are they doing this

  • Harvey Mudd
  • University of Toronto
  • Olin

change engineering education in general ? considering women specifically

  • Illinois - Goldberg

engineering in middle school career exploring

R I A S E C - engineering
x x . x . . - 72
. . x . x x - 20
x x . . x . - 76
x x . . . x - 85

http://mappingyourfuture.org/planyourcareer/careership/match_career.cfm

  • Realistic - Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
  • Investigative - Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
  • Artistic - Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
  • Social - Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
  • Enterprising - Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
  • Conventional - Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

notes

  • 2015.02.19 - David E. Goldberg Listening and questioning are important skills for today’s engineer, but these subjects are rarely addressed in the engineering curriculum.


  • 2015.01.01 - edmodo - science - request feedback on e4k
  • from edmodo "engineering" search - These engineering activities are a blending of inquiry and design. I usually allow the student to explore the materials first (to build background knowledge), and then I have an inquiry activity where they control certain variables and research factors that affect design, and then finally they work with the technological design process to produce a working product that completes some task. The format of the worksheets related to these projects takes this 3-part design. See Zubrowski, B. (2002). 1) Straw Rockets and Water Rockets, 2) Solar System Simulation, 3) Egg Drop Device, 4) Inertia Cars, 5) Catapults, 6) Energy Skate Park Simulation, 7) Death Ray, 8) Breeding Dragons.

notes 2014

"The core skill of innovators is error recovery, not failure avoidance." --Randy Nelson, President of Pixar University.


SWE professional development webinars

  • Outreach 4Δ - SWE outreach training - problem solving and process, spatial skills - mental rotation - [training, not avoid risk, mistakes = learning, importance, relevance.. Assessment for outreach. Health Happiness Safety.


  • SWE - Internet of Things (IoT), Machine to Machine (M2M), and enabling technologies Wed., May 28th at 1PM ET - interesting - older people in their own homes. ?, cheap, fast, pick 2. good overview of challenges - technical, also acceptance, security, standards/compatibility. building blocks - applications, devices, infrastructure - analystics, marketing, design


Society of Women Engineers SWE - Space Coast Section swe-sc.org

  • professional member since may 2014
  • Melbourne - Introduction to Engineering for Girls Workshop - Sat May 3, 2014
  • gears - Erin, Jessica - Harris lesson - input/output, bevel, rack and pinion, worm, ratios, universal joint
  • Adia, Andrea - organizers
  • SWEatERAU twitter, facebook


http://learningcenter.nsta.org/files/sc1204_67.pdf

  • Engineering: Go for It www.egfi-k12.org
  • Engineering Is Elementary www.mos.org/eie
  • Engineer Your Life www.engineeryourlife.org
  • Family Engineering www.familyengineering.org
  • Family Math www.lawrencehallofscience.org/equals
  • Family Science www.familyscience.org
  • National Engineers Week Foundation www.eweek.org
  • Those Amazing Engineers Teacher Guide www.trilogypublications.com/pdfs/TAE_TeachersGuide_lo.pdf


PIF 1 Velocity&Pressure


  • engineering collaboration - ieee - Katie, Daytona -
  • **Engineering ideas** - list ** That's engineering - explain / connect to this object
  • What's the problem - specific problem / requirements - step through process ? questions
  • request / challenge - object > list systems, engineered components ? eng class assignment / activity
  •  ? tweet, facebook
  • erau project lead the way
  • kids test drive, feedback
  • nsb bsf
  • logo, table cover


notes 2013

  • R2D2 - Read, Reflect, Display, and Do
  • Physics Classroom - Tom

Focused Applications of Physics Principles * Health Related Physics Atmospheric Optical Phenomena Electromagnetic Spectrum Lightning Electric Motors Transformers Electric Shock Household Circuits Aviation Physics Automotive Physics Oceanography Optics for Photography

  • researchgate.net, edmodo - STEM teaching / education community
  • Yosef - Project Lead the Way - ERAU Jan
  • Bruce - curiosity, imagination - that's engineering. swe ? activities/engineering, mechanics diagnostic test

Les/Ann - 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 > e4k 2012 - 1-gasohol , 2-aviation/laws of physics , 3-lighting, 4,5-illumination. 6,7,9, 10-x. 11-heating and cooling

2010 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12 2011 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12 2012 - 12 2013 - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12


2013.10.17 - 309 pages

2013.07.31 Read, Reflect, Display, and Do (R2D2) .pdf.

  • rethink - smaller stories, more example, less technical
  • story, picture/video, single engineering idea, activity, links

2013.07

  • space - start with thing > think, life (folk)
  • better stories - more focus, more engineering connection - design challenge too rigid but follow similar idea
  • identify engineering ideas, expand with specific examples
  •  ? projects, activities
  • writing non-fiction for kids
  • follow me - rss > newsify > twitter > diigo


2013.05

  • middle school - characteristics - activities / solutions. sample problems ?
  • mech eng - guided learner-directed with test/assessment. evidence - personal learning network - curation, create - publish, contribute, cooperate, collaborate. assume something like PhD program. outcome - undergrad degree. portfolio, assessment of prior learning, challenge examinations - OER_university

2013.04

  • bio-eng - new at erau in mechanical eng ? daytona state - STEM tom swain - biology, science education
  • STEM-H (health)
  • dana - STEAM (arts) grants meeting - ucf
  • nsb bsf 2014 - charlie reinholtz - k-8 robotics, engineering, interactive, competition - mindstorm - pre-programmed/ write new code, robot laser tag ? sally pinewood derby - becky creekside, dave holly hill, dana burns, grant funding

2013.01

  • BL activity example 474 words - kid focus, steps, illustrations, facts, good length, readability - missing more background science, learn more... links. 749 words several activities, some background, suggested reading - print.


Engineering and Society for Youth (EASY)

applying science to benefit the global community

Scientists ask questions about the world around us, whereas engineers modify the world to adapt it to our needs. Scientific inquiry is concerned with what is, while engineering design is focused on what can be. [4]


Lessons

  • Amazon Mission is an eighth-grade unit that is presented in the context of helping indigenous people in Brazil. It engages students in designing an insulated carrier that will keep medicine cool, a water filtration system, and a strategy for tempering the spread of an influenza virus.


Learn more...


notes 2012

2012.12

  • nap vocab, concepts - modeling, simulation, data analysis, limiting factors, criteria, specifications, mathematics skills - interpreting a line graph, making a line graph, measuring length in centimeters, adding and multiplying decimals. heuristics or rules of thumb.


  • questionnaire / interview guide
  • format ? cmooc - weekly - links, puzzle, qfocus > comments / blog, project, model, games
  • body of work - interesting and important activities for kids / learners. address all the aspects of engineering design process. examples. some worked examples. mostly learner directed activities. use right questions format with EDP. connection - man made, applied science. teacher notes after. general format - Qfocus > questions, priorities, actions * ask, imagine, plan, create, improve. social studies, grade level, science core curriculum
  • guidelines for the incorporation of core engineering concepts (systems and optimization) and skills (representation and experimentation) in K–12 education: 1. allocating sufficient classroom time for students to develop core concepts through immersion in extended design activities; 2. encouraging iterative, purposeful revisions of student designs; and 3. sequencing instruction to build from the easiest-to-learn aspects of core concepts to the more difficult-to-learn aspects. [5]



Engineering Concepts in the Categories of Systems and Optimization

Systems

  • Structure-behavior-function* (SBF) - a framework for representing a system, describe both natural and designed systems. components (structures) in a system to their purpose (function) in the system and the mechanisms that enable them to perform their functions (behavior). functional considerations actually drive the design process > FBS
  • Emergent properties* - computer simulations - full range of possibilities and outcomes
  • Control/feedback
  • Processes
  • Boundaries
  • Subsystems
  • Interactions


Optimization

  • Multiple variables*
  • Trade-offs*
  • Requirements
  • Resources
  • Physical laws
  • Social constraints
  • Cultural norms
  • Side effects


At the elementary level, the engineering standards focused on distinguishing between the natural and human made world, such as comparing tools with animal body parts, e.g., scissors vs. lobster claws and dog paws vs. rakes. Material properties and the basics of the engineering design process were also included. They are intended to be covered by the mainstream classroom teacher, who also covers all other core subjects.

At the middle school level, the standards focus again on the engineering design process and also on five technology areas: construction, manufacturing, communication, transportation, and bio-related technologies.


grade level, time, units, fit with existing activities - additions, reinforce, expand

  • intro to engineering - NASA video 2:43, engineering design process, building space suit / repairing space station example - really well done


overview

  • problems solving
  • applied science
  • different than pure science - "customer", no one "right" answer, find best answers
  • "failure" is very important part of the process - ** test / improve
  • engineering design process


careers / types


fit with science, math

  • rock cycle


mEngineering - smartphones

  • tools - calculators,
  • information sources - engineering data, product specifications
  • design - CAD
  • build - 3D printer
  • test - nobody gets hurt - simulation, modeling
  • just for fun and games - Geared


Learn more...


2012.2.3

  • YouTube kids engineering


2012.12.2

homeschoolers @ MOAS thurs 1:30pm - smartphone

ideas, suggestions for lessons, integration into science


  • * I notice… Focuses on subtle facts or details which are related to key understandings. * I think… INSIGHTFUL…identifies key understandings and their significance clearly, sees connections between ideas, supports opinions with persuasive, clear evidence, sees subtleties and ironies in alternate points of view. * I wonder… Question invites discussion promoting more than one point of view, personal connections, and understanding of the story or topic.


Engineering design - understand, design, deliver ** context [7]

  • Defining and delimiting engineering problems - stating problem clearly, criteria for success and constraints, or limits
  • Designing solutions - generating a number of different possible solutions, evaluating potential solutions best meet the criteria and constraints of the problem, testing and revising the best designs.
  • Optimizing the design solution - tradeoffs, less important features for more important, number of iterations before arriving at the best possible design.
how does it work vs what can it do ? Steve Jobs


Engineering

Engineering - exploring the designed world - the application of math, science and the engineering design process to innovative problem solutions

Engineering Design Process (EDP) [8]

  • Ask - identify the problem. ask as many questions as you can; do not stop to judge or correct or change any question; write down each question exactly as it comes out; change any statements into questions. [9]
  • Imagine - brainstorm, explore similar solutions, possible improvements, materials, methods, new ideas
  • Plan - design, work out what it takes to build, any special tools, prototype, scale model, mathematical model, CAD - categorize, prioritize
  • Create - build it, try it out - testing, use it
  • Improve - make it better, additional features


Florida history - Volusia 4th

  • settlers - tools, housing, water transportation, railroad, shipping - MOAS [10]
  • agriculture - citrus plantations, farming, cattle, irrigation, sugar mill
  • indians - housing, tools, crafts
  • hurricanes - damage to man-made structures, damage avoidance / prevention
  • theme parks - rides, attractions
  • Thomas Edison - phonograph, motion picture camera, 1,000 other inventions
  • NASA
  • St. Augustine and Cape Canaveral Lighthouse, Ponce Inlet lighthouse - construction, lenses, light source
  • forts, Castillo de San Marcos - construction, fortifications, guns, canons
  • Army Corps of Engineers - St. Johns River, Inter Coastal Waterway, bridges


water cycle

  • from my house to the sea - low flow toilets, sewage treatment
  • reduce, reuse, remediation, conserve


Learn more...

  • rock cycle - mining, exploration, oil refinery, thermal power
  • ERAU, Daytona State
  • Insects Inspire Robot Design [11]


Principles for K-12 engineering education

STEM literacy [12] - not only core knowledge and skills in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, but also the “big ideas” that link the four subject areas.

general principles that could guide all pre-college engineering education efforts

  • emphasize engineering design, the approach engineers use to identify and solve problems
  • incorporate important and developmentally appropriate mathematics, science, and technology knowledge and skills
  • promote engineering habits of mind, including systems thinking, creativity, optimism, collaboration, communication, and attention to ethical considerations


needs

  • clear description of which engineering knowledge, skills, and habits of mind are most important, how they relate to and build on one another, and how and when (i.e., at what age) they should be introduced to students
  • specify age-appropriate learning progressions in a rigorous or systematic way
  • specificity, consensus on learning outcomes and progressions


examples of natural connections between engineering and the three other STEM subjects

  • scientific investigation and engineering design are closely related activities that can be mutually reinforcing. include instances in which this connection is exploited (e.g., using scientific inquiry to generate data that can inform engineering design decisions or using engineering design to provide contextualized opportunities for science learning), systematically emphasized to improve learning in both domains.
  • mathematical analysis and modeling are essential to engineering design, use mathematics in ways that support modeling and analysis. K–12 engineering can contribute to improvements in students’ performance and understanding of certain mathematical concepts and skills.


experiences to support sophisticated understanding and skill development, even in young children

  • need sufficient time
  • opportunities for iterative, purposeful revisions of designs, ideas, models
  • ideas are sequenced from less to more complex


evaluation, assessment - effectiveness, professional development

Learn more...

Understanding the Status and Improving the Prospects] - full study, openbook

  • Engineering: An Introduction for High School = open-source high school “flexbook”. nature of engineering, engineering and society, engineering design, and the connection between engineering, science, and mathematics.


K-12 framework [http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13165 A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas] - based on practice of scientists and engineers

  • 1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)
  • 2. Developing and using models
  • 3. Planning and carrying out investigations
  • 4. Analyzing and interpreting data
  • 5. Using mathematics and computational thinking
  • 6. Constructing explanations (for science) and designing solutions (for engineering)
  • 7. Engaging in argument from evidence
  • 8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information


American inventions


E in K-8 STEM

An engineer starts with a societal need. Absent a societal need, an engineer has nothing to do. [13]

  • K-8 engineering - activities, needs, Burns, mentors/volunteers, engineering process, robots from found-objects, Sketch Up, improve existing objects, hands-on with cardboard, toothpicks, career search
  • learning lab - clear definition, outline, what to expect ? not motors, hands-on
  • diigo engineering


research, collaborate, share, logs / artifacts - web-based discussions, publication, blog, social bookmarks

  • what is engineering - examples
  • what do engineers do - careers industrial eng video
  • who - role models, personal stories
  • engineering design vs scientific method - societal need, trade-offs


projects / examples / thinking things

  • Sketch Up - free CAD, good tutorials
  • collaboration - think, pair, pair.2, share
  • innovation, inspiration
  • great ideas, favorite things
  • history - good, not so good engineering
  • Peter Pan Captain Hook / modern prosthetic
  • grocery shopping cart - IDEO video
  • toothpick bridge ? marshmallows
  •  ?? hands-on for middle school interests - motors, SeaPerch robot, Lego League, Robo??
  • Tech Awards - global engagement in applying technology to humanity's most pressing problems by recognizing individuals, organizations, and companies that use innovative technology solutions. 6 award areas: Environment, Education, Young Innovator, Health, Economic Development, or Sustainable Energy.


thinking...

  • engineering for good - learning lab [14]
  • Research shows that girls start losing interest in math and science during middle school. Girls are typically more interested in careers where they can help others (e.g., teaching, child care, working with animals) and make the world a better place ... careers that use technology and scientific expertise to change the way things are done, to improve the environment, to make people healthier, or to make life more efficient. Girl Scout study
  • Olin [15] - paid yr 1 to develop curriculum, first graduating class [16] [17] Students 346 enrolled 55% male / 45% female [18]
  • what Cape Canaveral was to America in the 1960s: the place where everyone everywhere should want to come to start up and make something — something that makes people’s lives more productive, healthy, comfortable, entertained, educated or secure. --Friedman
  • Florida - p.eng - licensing, qualifications < curriculum
  • applied science - outcomes, FIRST, IDEO
  • UN Millennium goals
  • magnetic soap - chem looking for a problem
  • OERs / curriculum - lesson plans, presentations, resources, ThinkQuest
  • create design world (engineering - societal need > multiple correct answers with tangible economic value) vs. explore natural world (scientist - unknown > the correct answer freely added to a body of knowledge)
  • explore engineering disciplines - materials, biomedical, geo-engineering, nano, operations research / industrial, aerospace, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer science
  • ERAU - Applied Science < Engineering curriculum total reorg, IDEO, community college ? innovation / creativity


100 objects

hallmarks of good design - useful, intuitive, unobtrusive, durable, and affordable. They are also economical in the sense that they do a lot with a little. That is what makes them elegant.

Object - story - what can it do (problem), how does it work (applied science)

  • Engineering process - identify the problem * explore * design * create * try it out * make it better

Purpose. Design challenges. Trade offs. Science & math involved


examples - roller coaster , Eiffel tower , Frank Gehry designed EMP Museum Seattle , Slot machine and electronic gambling machines , Jet engine , Fresnel lens , MRI , Superconductor cryogenic magnetic field maglev train in japan , Radial engine , Plasma cutter , Wankel engine , Bridges - Golden Gate, Tacoma Narrows , stone chopping tool , handaxe , Dyson Ball™ vacuums , steam, railroads, electricity, telecommunications


top 20 achievements - 1. Electrification 2. Automobile 3. Airplane 4. Water Supply and Distribution 5. Electronics 6. Radio and Television 7. Agricultural Mechanization 8. Computers 9. Telephone 10. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration 11. Highways 12. Spacecraft 13. Internet 14. Imaging 15. Household Appliances 16. Health Technologies 17. Petroleum and Petrochemical Technologies 18. Laser and Fiber Optics 19. Nuclear Technologies 20. High-performance Materials


future engineering - sustainability, nanotechnology, geo-engineering, bio-engineering


Problem solving

http://feh.eng.ohio-state.edu/Lectures/192wi06/Lecture%2002%20-%20Problem%20Solving%20-%2006.ppt

  • create a new product
  • cost reduction
  • develop or change procedure
  • human factors

types of information

  • GIVENS: The initial condition of the problem
  • OPERATIONS: The various actions we are allowed to perform
  • GOALS: The desired final condition of the problem
  • PROBLEM STATE: The state of the problem at any specific point in time
  • SOLUTION: Completely specified the GIVENS, OPERATIONS, GOALS, and succession of PROBLEM STATES to get to GOAL state


Applied science

aka Engineering

  • "application" as related to science, math
  • opportunity for self-directed learning
  • explore engineering as related to subjects of personal interest
  • innovation, imagination, problem solving
  • use engineering process - what-if project - identify the problem. explore. design. create. try it out. make it better
  • communication in a community of practice
  • perfect enough, could be better (CBB)
  • project management - time, resources, money
  • scenario planning - trade-offs


"application" as related to science, math

  • examples - Statue of Liberty, bridges, robotic fish, cars, planes, food processor, microwave oven
  • explore engineering as related to subject of personal interest - find your own examples, explore application of science and math to the problem in this solution


use engineering process - what-if project - identify the problem. explore. design. create. try it out. make it better X 3 - 3 separate project cycles, 1 quick walkthrough / demo, 1 significant, 1 shorter opportunity to put learning from project 1&2 review/analysis into practice

  • opportunity for self-directed learning
  • research
  • problem selection
  • discussion, community of interest / practice
  • constrained project management - some bounds (grade-level math, science), limits (time to completion), guidance (cf instruction)
  • evidence of use of engineering process - bookmarks, models, diagrams, descriptions, blog entries
  • deliverables - presentation, project specifications, design notes, user's guide
  • reflection - what did I learn from this? what would I do differently next time?


guidance, need to know

  • innovation, imagination, problem solving
  • communication in a community of practice
  • perfect enough, could be better (CBB)
  • project management - time, resources, money - timeline, task list, checkpoints / milestones, deadlines, deliverables, parallel / sequential activities, resource requirements / limits, budget
  • scenario planning - possibilities, trade-offs, risk analysis


from 10 ways to think like a mathematician - not all the points are an exact fit but there are a number of "transferable" skills that are essential in both mathematics and applied science

  • questions everything
  • write in sentences - the building blocks of arguments, promotes real understanding, logical thinking
  • what about the converse - not necessarily true
  • use the contrapositive - two trues, but what about two not-trues
  • consider extreme examples - real but unusual, approaching limits
  • create your own examples
  • where are the assumptions used? - are they necessary limitations
  • start with the complicated side - simplify, look for smaller assemblies, components
  • ask "what happens if..." - more complexity, increase knowledge and understanding
  • communicate - explaining your work forces you to think clearly. learn from others - find mistakes, make suggestions


Four principles of How to Solve It suggests the following steps when solving a mathematical problem:

  1. First, you have to understand the problem. - identify the problem, explore
  2. After understanding, then make a plan. - design
  3. Carry out the plan. - create, try it out
  4. Look back on your work. How could it be better? - make it better

If this technique fails, Pólya advises: "If you can't solve a problem, then there is an easier problem you can solve: find it." Or: "If you cannot solve the proposed problem, try to solve first some related problem. Could you imagine a more accessible related problem?"

Learn more...


Engineering process

identify the problem * explore * design * create * try it out * make it better

  • define the problem
  • background research
  • idealize the problem (figure out how to model it as a simplified system etc)
  • do the analytical work
  • figure out how your analysis of the simplified system maps to the real world
  • test to see if you've met your criteria
  • if not, revise and go through the process again.

design engineering, research

  • Use vs Know - Bloom simplified - know vs use http://blog.djangolabs.com/know-vs-use-activities/
    Use activity: Your client wants to use their widget at 2800 meters above sea level. What modification do you need to make to the widget? 1. Transmogrify it 2. Redorbinate it 3. Neoplyordinize it 4. No modification needed
    The “use” activity tests whether the learner can apply their knowledge of transmogrification in a realistic situation, not in an abstract definition activity. At the same time, it answers three “know” questions for us. It tells us whether the learner knows that: * 2800 meters is officially “high altitude” * You need to modify widgets for high altitudes * The necessary modification is called “transmogrification”

mLearning - created with an iPhone - Getting around Tokyo - example of a learning process http://lc.celebrateoklahoma.us/video/engineering-process-with-michael-solomon


putting the E in STEM

  • applied science - understanding what engineering is - what it is, what it is not
  • what engineers "do" - problem solving - demonstrate, examples, video

Learn more...

  • IDEO builds a better shopping cart for Nightline program - video

Design. Engineering. Innovation. Form. Process. Function.


Design thinking

Design thinking - from a “beginner’s mind”—the Zen ideal of approaching old problems with a fresh, almost childlike disposition. Too many of us ride into town already 99 percent sure that we’ve got the answers, when in fact, we don’t yet even know what the real problems are. Design thinking requires stepping back, slowing down, witnessing, asking, and becoming more and more comfortable with not knowing. And it’s being adopted by a wide range of practioners—military officers, educators, scientists and more. http://dowser.org/nine-with-your-help-insights-from-opportunity-collaboration/#more-16575


Introduction for anyone / k-12 interested learning about Engineering, applied science - activities, videos and links

  • Communication Skills for Personal and Professional Development: The Seven Challenges Approach
    The Seven Challenges course workbook introduces students to some of the most important processes in interpersonal communication, supported by readings, references and exercises.
    This is definitely a learn-how-to-do-it course, with the supporting materials arranged to facilitate behavior change and skill acquisition. Processes covered include listening, negotiating the shape of conversations (metacommunication), self-expression, translating complaints into requests, asking questions more open-endedly and creatively, expressing appreciation, and adopting the attitude and practice of continuous learning (embracing each conversation as an opportunity to further develop one's communication skills).


Job listings, resumes and applications

Engineering resumes - samples, formatting and content


Engineering job listings - also check for language, qualifications, keywords to put in your resume and use to search for listings


Organizations - job postings, resume info, join as member - good to have industry organization affiliation to include on your resume


Engineering curriculum

  • Stanford Engineering Everywhere (SEE) - popular engineering classes free of charge to students and educators around the world. View lecture videos, access reading lists and other course handouts, take quizzes and tests, and communicate with other SEE students.
  • Introduction to Computer Science - the three-course sequence taken by the majority of Stanford undergraduates
    Programming Methodology CS106A, Programming Abstractions CS106B, Programming Paradigms CS107
  • Artificial Intelligence - advanced courses in artificial intelligence
    Introduction to Robotics CS223A, Natural Language Processing CS224N, Machine Learning CS229

Open textbooks - Science, Math and Engineering

College Open Textbooks - textbooks by subject including math, science, chemistry, physics, engineering



Virtual lectures

  • Universities - MIT, Stanford, UC Berkeley
  • TED Talks
  • YouTube Edu - from college and university partners
  • TeacherTube


Women in engineering

  • why aren't more women studying Engineering
  • what would make Engineering education and careers more attractive to women
  • gender considerations in design and delivery of products and services

Engineering (applied science) SHOULD be a natural fit for women, but it isn't. This needs to change.


Interest and ability

  • perception
  • experiential learning
  • Engineering course pre-reqs - math, science


Gender considerations



Some ideas for consideration

  • critical view focusing on the role of technology as a system and as practice in which there are choices about our future course of action.
  • women generally need to understand the context of an idea and to have a thorough explanation. Adequate explanation and contex-tual description is an important way to improve instruction for a number of students.
  • Some students will need to have a higher degree of explanation and contact with the teacher. However, all students would benefit from more attention to expla-nation and context from any teacher.
  • students should be encouraged to share their own knowledge and expertise. Include women and all students in the educational discourse, providing them with a voice in order to strengthen students' involvement and understanding of the subject matter


http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v10n2/zuga.html Karen F. Zuga

http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/

women's ways of knowing


distribution by gender of myers briggs type

create an alternate theory and scientific methodology based upon the differences of women. The purpose of this is not to destroy science, but to continue the evolution of science (Fox Keller, 1985; Fee, 1986; Rose, 1986).

change in the view of science has been detailed by Fox Keller (1986)

benefited from feminist conceptions of theory and paying attention to women�s ways of knowing has been the work of primatologists as outlined by Reed (1978), Haraway (1986; 1989), and Hrdy (1986) and as given notoriety by the work of Dian Fossey with mountain gorillas.

particular differences in the way in which women experienced knowing. Their perspectives were: silence, a condition in which women did not speak out; received knowledge, listening to the voices of others; subjective knowledge, listening to the inner voice and a quest for one�s own identity; procedural knowledge, looking for reason and becoming aware of separate and connected knowledge; and constructed knowledge, integrating the voices of all with respect to context. Perry, 1970; Belenky et al., 1986).


final position of constructed knowledge which involves paying close attention to context, wanting to know and to represent the knowledge of others in order to inform thinking, is not as well represented either in Perry�s (1970) theories or in the traditional conceptual-izations of science.


MPICT / NSF / IWITTS

CalWomenTech Project

City College of San Francisco Computer Networking and Information Technology Program, with a focus on the new Digital Home Integration Technology certification http://www.iwitts.com/html/calwomentech_summary.html

http://www.iwitts.com/html/calwomentech_sites.html Carmen Lamha, the chair of the CNIT Department, and Dr. Pierre Thiry, Principal Investigator for the Mid-Pacific ICT (MPICT) Center, a three-year $3 milion NSF ATE Project, are leading the College's efforts.

More information about CCSF's MPICT Program http://www.iwitts.com/html/calwomentech_sites.html#

Visit the WomenTech Section of CCSF’s Website http://womentechworld.org/ccsf/


Organizations with programs for young women


women technology educators

  • INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION ASSOCIATION

The ITEA WomenTech Portal brings educators resources for increasing the number of women and girls in the technology classroom. ... www.iteaconnect.org/Resources/womentechportal.htm - Cached - Similar -

  • Women-Related Science/Technology Sites

May 9, 2009 ... Digital Sisters: (Digital Sisters has been created "to promote and provide technology education and enrichment for young girls and women of ... www.research.umbc.edu/~korenman/wmst/links_sci.html - Cached - Similar -

  • Women In Technology

Women in Technology (WIT) is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to offering women in all levels of the technology industry a wide range of professional ... Event Calendar - Job Bank - About WIT - Contact Us www.womenintechnology.org/ - Cached - Similar -

Women and girls often perceive the subject of technology education as a male ..... Technology educators need to understand that women's values will enter ... scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v10n2/zuga.html - Cached - Similar - by KF Zuga - Cited by 31 - Related articles - All 9 versions

Digital Sisters, Inc. a Technology Social Services Agency. Skip Intro and Enter Site here. Gender & Technology · Technology Planning. www.digital-sistas.org/ - Cached - Similar -


  • more women into engineering - 17 > 25% - cohort, restructure > P.Eng cert ? turn-offs - un-welcoming, unknown endpoint (cf know what a doctor does), role models

Girl Scout research [19] -

An engineer starts with a societal need. Absent a societal need, an engineer has nothing to do. [20]

  • how does it work, what can it do
  • societal needs and engineering - Haiti water purifier, MDG, Tech Awards, NOVA Science & Society / Tech & Engineering [21]
  • process and product - engineering method
  • you don't have to do it all yourself - group work - IDEO shopping cart
  • failure is an option, no right answers, could be better - digital hands-on Sketchup, Etoys, Squeak
  • interests, role models, careers
  • challenge-based learning [22] - rubric [23]


What do engineers do?

Why would I want to be one?

  • introduction to breadth of opportunities - examples of interesting careers, profiles of interesting people
  • problem solving - games, puzzles
  • processes and methods - applied math and science - hands-on activities
    • lego robots - Lego League
    • bridges
    • roller coaster design
    • CAD / MatLab
  • demonstrations - virtual field trips
    • biomedical ? Dean Kaman TED talk
  • questions - motivation, alternatives considered, preconceived ideas about engineering


  • Discovering Information Systems: An Exploratory Approach This book was amazing, I learned so much from it. It broke down the concepts in a manner that was easy to grasp and also it made it fun to read. I am going to continue to use it as a resource for my engineering courses and recommend it to other students so they can have a good foundation of technical information. AC w12
  • Illumin - exploring the science and technology behind the things we encounter every day, the far-reaching impact of the engineering profession, and provide a broader view of the socio-economic and political implications of rapid technological change.



Interesting engineering jobs

  • Disneyland
  • IDEO
  • teaching
    • Cristina Amon, Dean, Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University of Toronto - first women to hold this position
    • Susan McCahan, Professor, First Year Chair, GoEngGirl Fair
  • NASA
  • robotics - search and rescue
  • biomedical
  • environmental - safe water


Career Options for Women

These are previews and promotions for videos for sale. However the descriptions and the preview clips are useful without the expense of purchasing the videos. http://www.womentechstore.com/careervids.html


Science and engineering news

  • Slashdot
  • Wired
  • BBC News - Technology
  • Science Geek Girl - science writer talks about all sort of interesting science topics, includes videos


Simulations, games and puzzles

  • Math animations - Many concepts in mathematics are dynamic, that means books can not explain and display everything you need to understand a certain concept. This animation teaching tool makes things different . It shows every concepts very clear and make it fun. Multimedia demonstration makes it easier for understanding. --XZ
  • simulations of different subjects. Using simulations is a better way to learn new things because it can deepen people's impression of the subject. It also makes learning become more interesting.


Projects and competitions

  • US FIRST Robotics Competition


Organizations, communities and networks



NGCP > Resources > Relevant Links > Engineering http://www.ngcproject.org/resources/relevantlinks2.cfm

  • Engineer Girl – a program of the National Academy of Engineering. Educates girls about careers in engineering
  • MentorNet An e-mentoring network for female students in engineering and science
  • Society of Women Engineers Dedicated to advancing and encouraging women in engineering. Conferences, networking, career development, scholarships
  • Engineer Your Life Meet inspiring women engineers who make a real difference in the world and help high school girls discover how exciting and rewarding an engineering career can be.


Engineering and social entrepreneurship

Krista Donaldson has been working at the intersection of design and international development for over twelve years, applying engineering and design to confounding social problems in the developing world. Her recent work focused on medical devices: Brilliance a device to treat babies with severe jaundice, and the JaipurKnee, an artificial knee for developing world amputees. Donaldson was a diplomacy fellow at the U.S. Department of State, a design engineer with KickStart International in Nairobi, Kenya, and at the product design firm IDEO. A native of Nova Scotia, Krista has a BE in Mechanical Engineering from Vanderbilt University, a MSE (Product Design), MSME and a PhD from Stanford University. Her doctoral work was among the first to focus on engineering and social entrepreneurship in less industrialized economies. Donaldson is also a lecturer at the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford University.