Useful open source software

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Ubuntu Linux - A popular Linux distribution - especially good for new users
Gentoo Linux - A source based Linux distribution
Awesome - A dynamic floating and tiling window manager
Spectrwm - A small dynamic tiling window manager
Stumpwm - A manual tiling window manager written in lisp
Xmonad - A dynamic tiling window manager
Fluxbox - A lightweight window manager
Emacs - The text editor which includes the kitchen sink
Vi - text editor (actually vim)
Jedit - an excellent full-featured text editor
LibreOffice - Open source office suite (fork of openoffice)
Gnumeric - a spreadsheet (better math support than openoffice)
Inkscape - a drawing program based on SVG
Scribus - a desktop publishing program. Can also be used for making PDF presentations.
LyX - GUI front end to LaTeX
Gqview - photo viewer
Gimp - photo editor (note the difference with gqview)
Mutt - the command line based e-mail client
[1] - webkit browser with good security features
Firefox - Mozilla's open source web browser
IceCat - GNU free software version of Firefox (no longer maintained)
MozEx - cool Firefox add-on for using a text editor for editing inside the browser (note does not work for Firefox 3.5+)
AdBlock Plus - Firefox add-on which blocks ads
NoScript - Firefox add-on which blocks potentially dangerous Javascript
w3m - a text web browser
Urxvt - terminal with good unicode support
zsh - shell designed for interactive use