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Demonstrate knowledge of animal and microbial interaction


Discuss the normal flora of animals

A mixture or a group of organism that commonly found at any anatomical site is referred to as the normal flora. In a healthy animal blood, brain and muscle are normally not affected by normal flora but the surface tissues like skin and mucous are constantly exposed .Normal flora of humans are complex it varies according to age,sex,diet and nutrition . microbial association with skin is mainly due to staphylococci and corynebacteria,These two are considered as non pathogenic and commonsal.It has some parasitic and mutalistic roles too, it produce fatty acid that inhibit the growth of fungi and yeast in the skin. In certain occasion it act as a pathogen especially humans who are nasal carriers ,their face and hands are likely to infected with bacteria.They cause infection themselves and spread to others.

Element 3

Describe the microbiology of the lumen

Microbiology of the rumen consist of bacteria,fungus and protozoa. Bacteria can be grouped according to their shape, size and structure and also they are grouped eight according the type of substance fermented,they contribute 1010-1011gm/cells of the rumen. These group utilize cellulose, hemi cellulose,starch,sugars,immediate acids, protein and lipids produce methane. These groups of bacteria are liable for all fermentation process in rumen,they remove hydrogen by the reduction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen to produce ledads the reduction of hydrogen content which helps methionic bacteria to increase the growth of other bacterial colonies. Protozoa is about 105 to106 cells/gram of rumen contents and fungi contribute 8% ,anaerobic fungi are the predominant one.

protozoa act as a source of protein by ingest bacteria and also act as a stabilizing factor for fermentation end products.Bacteria and fungi helps in fiber digeston and anaerobic fungi degrading cellulose and xylene ,to indicate their role in fibrer digestion.

Microbes located in rumen mainly cover three phases, Liquid phase: occurs free living organism present in rumen fluid which feed carbohydrate andProtein ,it contribute about 25%.

Solid phase: Microbial group attached with food particles helps to digest insoluble polysaccharides like starch,fiber and less soluble proteins.,it contributes 25% of microbial mass.

Last phase:5% of microorganisms either attached to epithelial cells in the rumen or to protozoa Ref:From Feed to Milk,part 1 Rumen - 190k – 0n 15/10/2008

Element 4

Discuss Microbes induced disease process in animals

Animal disease refers the disorder that affect animal health and ability to function, itredue the productivity of animals that seriously affect economy of many industries, some of them affect humans too. To identify a disease a veteinarian must consider the age,sex,breed and species of animals, because some disease are prevalent in certain categories.Animal disease can be classified as infectious and non infectious Infectious Caused by an agent(bacteria,virus,parasite or fungi

Non infectious Caused by factors like diet,environment,injury or heredity(some times the causes are un known)

4.1:Bacterial disease Avian Tubarculosis:Animal infected:Birds Source:Respiratory aerosols

Anthrax:Animal infected: Dogs,cats and domestic animals Source:Contact with animals,contaminated soils,and hides and also ingecton of contaminated milk or meat

Salmenellosis:Animal infected:Dogs,cats,poultry and rats. Source:Ingestion of infected tissues and contaminated water

Brucellosis:Infected animal:Domestic animals Source:Direct contact with infected tissuesand ingection of milk from infected animal

leptospirosis:Infected animal:dogs,rodents Source:Contact with urine, infected tissue and contaminated water Viral disease Rabies:Infected animal:Dogs,cats,batsand wolves Source:Bites,infected saliva in wounds Encepalitis

Animal infected:Horse,birds and domestic animals Source:Mosquitos Lassa fever

Infected animal:Rodents Source:Urine

Parasitic & fungal diseases

Histoplasmosis:(fungal):Infected animal: Birds Source: Aerosols of dried infected faeces

Ring worm(fungal)Animal infected:Cat,dog and other domestic animal Source: Direct contact

African sleeping sickness(parasitic):Animal infected: Wild game animals Source: Tsetse flies

Toxoplasmosis(parasitic):Animal infected:Cats,birds,rodents, and domestic animals Source:Aerosols,contaminated food and water, placental transfer

Tape worms(parasitic):Animal infected:cattle&rodents. Source: Ingestion of cysts in meat

Ref:microbiology principles and applications (second edition) By Jacquelin G Black

4.2 salmenellosis

Salmonellosis is a bacterial infection caused by salmonella. symptoms associated with diarrhoea and septicemia,it is one of the main disease fond in birds,reptiles,wild and domestic animals. Route of entry is mainly through mouth commonly by food and water contaminated with infected faeces or by direct contact with infected animal and multiplies in small intestine. And also it transmitted by object contaminated with infected animal products like eggs or meat. Ref. Diseases of Animals," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2008� Certain factors are there to increase the spread of these disease, increase in animal husbandry and production are the main reasons.Due to the inereased number of farm animals protien and vegitable by products imported in a large scale,which result in the widespread of disease in animals and humans.

4.3 control mechanisms

Many countries prevent salmenellosis in animals for preventing many food born diseases. Salmonella typhimurium DT104 is the anti bacterial drug used for controlling disease in animals. The feeding of faeces from adult hen to young is found to be a good method to prevent bacterial colonization,so it is used in poultry industry Ref. salmonella in domestic animals .C.Wray &A Wray

Element 5

Discuss epidemology

Epidemology is the study of factors and mechanisms that presentin the spread of disease within a population.Epidemologist are the scientists who study epidemology and causes and transmission of infectious disease.They classified diseases according to the size of geographic area affected and the degree of hazard the disease cause in population.On the basis of that disease can be classified as endemic,Epidemic and pandemic or sporadiac Endemic disease is occurs constantly in a particicular geographic area degree of severity and the number of cases are less and it vary according to the different geographic area and it is not conasider as a public health problem. Mumps and chicken pox are the examples of endemic disease. Epidemic disease has a sudden and high incidence within a population,the severity and the number of cases are high and considered as a public health is caused by the presence of a perticular virulent strain of a pathogen in a large population who lacks immunity. Polio myletics is consider as a epidimic desease and a severity of the epidimic disease is determined according to the pathogen and the type of host.Pandemic disease occured when epidemic become world wide.Cholera is the most recent pandemic it spred 1961 to1971in various part of the world

Ther are few metheods which used control the transmittable diseases. Isolation:in which person having particular communable disease is prevented from general population Qurantine:Separation of huan or animal from common population having communable diseasor have been exposed to one Immunisation :control of communable disease by using safe vaccines Vector control:Is considered as an effective means of conrolling infectious disease in which a vector or an organisms canbe identified and also its habitat,feeding behaviour,breeding to be considered andthen the place which lives as well as breeds shoulbe destroyed by an insecticides and rodenticides Ref:microbiology principles and applications (second edition) By Jacquelin G Black


Element 1

Demonstrate knowledge of the microbiology of air

Microbes normally found in atmosphere within 300-10000 feet above from the land.Fungal spores which are found in air consist of Alternaria,cladosporium,penecillium and aspergllus found above4000feet from the land,found inboth polar and non polar air masses.Organisms found below 500 feet is mainly in overpopulated area,these include spores of bacillus and clostridium,ascospores of yeast and fragments of mycelium,mold,streptomycetaceae,pollen,protozoancysts,algae,micrococcus and cocorynebacterium. Tn the air of school and hospitalor living places of the person suffered from infectious disease usually found microbes like tubercle bacilli,streptococciand pneumococci origin: Most of the soil micro organisms enter in air by wind and man made actions like digging and ploughing of soil water borne microbes usually reached air through aerosoles ans also splashing of water by wind Plant organisms or animal pathogen (commensal) relased to air by air current Main soure of micro organisms is human beings because their exfoltatie cells flora will shed at all times and also the patogens and commansal found in upper respiratory trct will spread by coughing ,sneezing talking and laughing Organisms dispersed in to air mainly three forms,droplet is the main soure of infectous disease dispersed in to air by saliva and mucous through coughing,sneezing,laughing and talking these droplets become large and enter in to air.Droplet nuclei is the second one formed by clumbing of droplets.Infectious dust isthe third one released from the object contaminated with dust.Each droplets contain more than 100000 lakhs microorganism

Element 2

Microbial flora found in air is less amout but has significant role in many fields,because air is constantly contact with animate and inanimate objects. significance of microbs in public health:micro organisms produce a lot of disease,espcially in hospitals nococomial pathogens cause nosocomial pneumonia.MRSA(metcilinre resistant staphylococcus aureaus)Gentamicin resistant gram negative bacteria are found to be serious in nowadaysand it trasmitted either by contact or by airborne spread Significance in food processing:Food products are either animal or plant origin.some bcteria cause food poison.clostridium cause toxin in meat and meat produts,staphylococcus produce infection in fish products and salmonella cause through milk,egg and salads Allof these are happen foodstuff handling with an unhygenic methods.Microbial biofilms also act as a significant one, it appears in food and food contact surface when colonisation of microorganisms occur under favourable conditions,if micro organisms not removed from the surface it create biofilms that will be hazad to consumers.

Ref.Significance of biofilms in food industry(G Kumar,S K journal of food microbiology)

In airconditioning and metal systems:Bacteria like cladosporium have enzymatic activity capable ofmetabolizediesel,jet fuels,creosote and hydrocarbons,it produce anoxious smell that imact the quality of indoor air.

Ref.Colonization byCladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems journal of industrial microbiology and biotechnology



Element 1

Interaction between plant are microbiology is the part of study of ecology.In these association plats and microorganisms have certain good and benifits,there are few associations and results 1. Root nodule formation (actinorrhiza) is a small gall like abnormal swelling x found especially in roots of leguminous plants which developed by the attack of bacteria rhizobium and bradyrhizobium,it help plant to fix atmospheric nitrogen by converting it to Ammonia and then it converted to nitrates and amino acid.plant having the nodule increase the soil fertiliy by increasing nitrate content of the soil.It also appears in certain non leguminous plants like Alnus and bayberry encyclopedia/root nodule

2. Mycorrhizal These reffered as a close physiological association between a fungus and root of a plant and is called symbiosis association because it benefical to both plant and fungi.plant root taken up more nutrients from the soil than other plants and fungi also take nutrients from the plant too.commonly fond in orchids encyclopedia/mycorrhizal

3. epiphyte or air plant have no roots and grow upon another plant some of them makes food by photosynthesis using moisture from air or from moisture laden pocket of the host plant,plant take these nutritions.and give physical support to them encyclopedia/epiphytic association

4.Rhizosphere association;many roots posses rhizobial association thatis benenefical to bacteria, plant growth promoting rhizobactera(PGPR)increase plant production.Azospirillum is the fungi living associate with the plants of sonora dessert enhance plant growth encyclopedia/rzizosphere association in plants

Other associations are Lichen(algae) with cyanobacteria:Bacteria provides nitrogen and algae provide photosynthetic sugar Ant colonies with acacia trees:ants provide nutrients like nectar and food and tree provide shelter

Element 2

Plant diseases are caused mainly by bacteria,fungi or virus.A disease occur when an environmental factor increase the growth of a parasite that is unfavourable to the growth of a plant.Citrus canker is a disease mainly found in citrus species caused by the bacterium xanthomonas axopodis.Infection cause lesions on the leaves,stems and fruits of citrus trees like lime,oranges and grapes.Cranker affects the vitality of the trees that leads to fall leaves and fruits prematurally.Fruit affect these is safe to eat but unsightly to sold Plants infected have acharacteristic lesion on leaves,stems and fruit with raised berwn,and water socked areas found with ayello halloor ring effect around the lesions the bacterium spread through leasions to stem and other leaves,it spread other trees by wind blown rain.It invades through plant stomata or through wounds on leaves,younger leaves are more affected than the older one.Bacteria can stay several months in other plant areas and also in old leasions canker

Plant posses a wide varitiy of defence mechanisms in order to protect themselves from microorganisms and herbivorous prickles is the modified extention of the cortex and epidermis into a sharp neele like structure,spines and thrones are the the defence mechanisms used to escape from herbivorous when a microorganism enter in leaf surface,it posses wall thickening(papilla)directly under the infected surface,produce certain chemicals which inhibit the growth of microorganisms.In addition to these plant produce certain compounds that inhibit the growth of microorganisms.If a plant cell is affected by an organism,it destroyed by hipersensitive action by producing toxic substance from dead plant cell,cell of the plant is small soit dealth usually not affect plant growth and appearance.Induced resistance is an another one,it happens when plants are continuously affected with microorganisms or particles of sand


plant infectious diseases are mainly occurs by the infection of virus,bacteria,fungi and viriods Fungi Ascomycecetes are the major infection produce fugus thielaviopsis produce canker rot and black root rot,Blastidiomycetes produce soyabean rust(sydow) oomycetes are the fungus like organisms cause potatolate blight and sudden oak dealth Infectious-disease-causing-agents

Control methods

use disease free crops,crop rotation,destruction of infected plant meterials,produce and use of resistant plant varities,using chemical and biological fungicidies are the methods used to control fungal diseases Infectious-disease-causing-agents-conrol Bacteria Granvillie wilt produced by psudomonas species infected in tobacco,tomato and potatoes Erwinia species cause fire blight in apple and pear Blight of beans produced by xanthomonas species and citrus canker is caused by xanthomonas axonopodis

Control methods

Bacterial disease in plants are very difficult to control.use of bacterial free seeds is the effctive metod against bacterial blights of bears ,peas,bacterial spot and canker of tomatoes,bacterial seed compound control soft rot,rotation with non host crops reduce crown gall and bacterial spot,eradication and exclusion of host plant is the best one against citrus canker,soft rot reduced by using bactericidal sprays,and sanitary measures like distruction of infected plants and sterilization of grafting tools are the effective methods used to control bacterial infection Infectious-disease-causing-agents-control

Virus and viriods Tobacco mosaic virus disease is caused by tobacco mosaic virus infected in tobacco,vegetables and tomatoes.Cucumber mosaic virus disease is caused by cucumber mosaic virus disease affected in cucumber,bean and tomatoes.Barley yellow dwarf caused by barley yellow dwarf virus infected in barley,oats,rye and wheat.Tomato spotted wilt caused by tomato spotted wilt virus commonly affected in tomato,peper and pineapple. Infectious-disease-causing-agents

Control methods By cultivating resistant species,destruction of infected crop,controlling of insect vectors or fumigating soil,separation of new from virus infecting plants are the normal methods to control ,in addition to these socking of woody plants or infected sugar cane shoot in hot water in 50 oc for a short period,dry and heat treatment based on the sensitivity of certain virus to high temperatures,tissue culture of the growing plants under sterile condition are the methods used to control virus infection Infectious-disease-causing-agents-control


Discuss microbial boideterioration and biodegradation

Element 1

Biofilms is a population of bacteria,algae,yeast or fungi that is goining attached to a substance ,it can be living oract non living.Living things include teeth,gums,cells of intestinal or vaginal tract, and non living things lke medical devices such catheters.Microbial mats can be considered as complex biofilms its species composition is considered according to the presence or absence of three basic functional groups,primary producers,consumers and decomposers


1 Avalibilty of nutrients for growth 2 increasing the binding of water molecule 3. protection from uv radiation 4 produce consoritia which allows the recycling of substance 5.genitic exchange become easier due to proximity to progeny and other bacteria


Biofilms produce clinical symptoms like prosthetic hip joint,heart valves and cath eters it contribute the pathogenesis of keratitis because of its rapid production in contact lens organisms wiyhin a biofilm are difficult to destroy by common antimicrobial therapy wiki google/Biofilms/ google/Biofilms related infections in opthalmology

Element 2

Boidegradation is the process of breakdown of organic substance by the enzyme produced by living organism biodegradation of natural things banana take 2-10 days orange peels take one month paper take 2-5 months sugar cane pulp products 1-2 months Boidegradation of rubber is a small process,becteria utilizing rubber as a sole carbon source is also slow.Incubation periods take even weeks or months for obtaining degradation prouducts for further analysis. Biodegrion of xenobiotic compounds Biodegradation of lignin by white rot fungi- it play an important role in degration of lignin because of their lignolytic enzyme system.Lignin is the meterial found in woody plants ,it makes20-30% of wood,it found in cell wall and appears as a complex with cellulose and hemicellulose polysaccharides.White rot fungi has heterogenius collection of basidiomycetes which completely minerlise both lignin and carbohydrate compound of wood by oxidative cleavage of the propanoid side chain and also dimethylation and oxidation cleavage of aromatic rings,it helps the increase of frsolubility core and the fragments of varying size are set free Ref.Biodegradation of xenobiotic compound by white rot fungus

Element 3

Biodeterioration is the process of producing undesirable change in the properties of meterials by the vital activity of organisams.It classified into two,in assimilatory biodeterioration organism use meterial as a food or energy source and in dissimilatory change occur in meterials due to the excretion of waste products such as pigmented or acidic compounds by the microorganisms Ref google/introduction to biodeterioration

Biodeterioration of meterials

1 paper:paper pulp can be produced by chemically or by mechanically.Chemical paper pulp produce less nutrients for microorganisms than mechanical one.Bacteria and fungus cause deterioration in paper resultin poor quality of sheets. 2 wood:wood decay is mainly caused by fungus,suitable enviromental conditions like temperature,moisture and oxygen are necessary for wood decay. 3 textiles:when fiber is continuously exposed to temperature and moisture changes,certain organisms produce pigment or growth of cellular fibers,cause colour and weakness in fiber and susequently poor quality of meterials result. 4 paint and painted surface:Both micro and macro organisms attack painted surface,it depend on the chemical structure of the meterial and also chemical and physical properties of meterials and invading organism. microbiology/biodeterioration

Preventive methods : Physical methods like drying(freeze drying) or cooling and chemical methods such as adding biocide or preservative are the effctve methods used to prevent biodeterioration,use of low cost meterial is the another preventive method.Gama irradiation is the good preventive method for wood decay.

Ref google/introduction to biodeterioration


Bioremediation is reffered as any process that use microorganisms,fungi,green plant or their enzymes to return the natural environment which changed by contaminents to its original state It used agaist specific contaminents, insitu and exitu are the two types of bioremidiation.Insitu involves the treating of contaminated meterials at the site,exitu is the removal of contaminent meterial in some where else.Bioventing,bioreactor,composting,bioaugmentation,rhizofiltration and boistimulation are the major bioremediation techniques

Bioventing is the one which provides oxygen byb stimulating naturally occuring soilmicro organisms to degrade components in soilit is applicable in remediation of the soil contaminated with non chlorinated solvents,some pesticides,wood preservatives and organic chemicals Ref.Bioventing/

Composting involves breaking down of organic meterials by a large number of bacteria and fungi.,these requires oxygen and moisture to break down organic meterial .It operated in acopost heap,process generates heat may be the centre of the pile can reach degree celiceous in a well.


Explain and demonstrate the role of microorganisms in water treatment


Microbial population of water consist of bacteria,virus and other small organisms ,Various chemical and physical factors may influenze these population Sunlight increase the growth of bacteria and zooplankton.Temperature increase bacterial growth by causing infection. Phototrophs are the organisms which carry out photosynthesis by using energy from sunlight,convert carbon dioxide and water in to organic meterial,it is used for cellular functions.Main phototrophs found in aquatic habit are algae such as kelp and protists like euglena and bacteria(cyanobacteria).Bacteria use hydrogen from hydrogen sulphide is used instead of water for chemical purpose and absorb light as ultra violet and infrared.Phototrops are photoautotrops and photoheterotrophs.andphotolitotrophic autotrophs.latter use light energy and electron source like water,hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide Ref.www.en.wikipedia/org/wiki/phototrophs www.microbiological ecosystem


Water resources are the source of water which is useful to human beings.Agricultural,household,recreational are the main usage of water.97.5% of water fond in sea,2.5% water as fresh water and twothird of these found as frozen as glaciers and polar ice caps Ref.www.en.Wikipedia/org/wiki/Water resources Sedimentation is the physical water treatment for settling of suspended contaminents under the influenze of gravity.It used as primary water treatment process. Filtration is the another water treatment process used for the removal of suspended paricles and unsettled floc most common filter is sand filter it help to remove organic compound produce taste and odour Disinfection is the another one used for the removal of contaminents from water,chlorine ,ultra violet and ozone are commonly used for disinfection Recirculation of water is also considered as a treatment processBronze pumps are commonly used for the recirculation of hot water. Ref.www.en.wikipedia/org/wiki/water treatment process

An ecosystem contain both biotic and abiotic factors.Abiotic factors include temperature,salinity and flow.Amount of oxygen is also a big factor for the growth of microorganism.Organisms found in marine ecosystem can tolerate salinity than fresh water ecosystem.Fresh water used for irrigation purpose cause more absorbance in the salt that seriously affect aquatic habit. Redox potential is the inability to gain electronMany minerals cannot be absorbed or assimilated to these soit always keep(300-350)


Water treatment is a process of removing the contaminents from waste water,there are physical,chemical,biological process to remove chemical, physical and biological contaminents.the purose of waste water treatment is to produce waste stream or sludge which will reuse back for environment there are three types of waste water treatment, primary ,secondary and teritiary. In primary biological mass which is dissolved is converted to sold mass by micro organisms and then biological solids are neutralized, then the treated water is disinfected by chemical and physical method.Water is then returned into strem,river,lagoon for irrigation and agriculture purpose solid waste such as sticks,cans can be treated with the sedimentation technique,in these sewage passed through primary sedimentation tanks In secondary is used for degrading biological content present in the sweage like linen waste,food waste ,soap and detergent this is done by using aerobic biological process because oxygen is needed for the biodegradation.In these micro organisms like bacteria and protozoa will digest soluble organic contaminents like sugar,fat, organic short chain carbon molecules Activated sludge :plant prduce different mechanisms,that used dissolved oxygen it will increase the growth of bacteria which remove the contaminents

Filter beds or oxidising beds:In older plants trickling filter beds used for settled sewage liquor to spread on the surface beds made up of coke,limestone chips etc.Liquor spread by radiating arms having a central pivot,biofilms such as bacteria,fungus and protozoa in the surface can reduce the organic contaminents

Teritiary metod is the final treatment which increase the quality before back to the environment(sea,river,lake,ground). Filtration:it reduce the remaing suspended matter for example filtration in activated charcol remove toxins. Lagooning:Settlement and biological improvement through storage in man made lagoon and ponds Constructed wetlands:methods having increased aerobic biological improvement ,called phytoremediation Nutrient removal:waste water consist of nitrogen and phosphorus which increase algae and bacteria which results the production of algal bloom these cause deoxygenation of water and also contamination there are large nuber of methos for removing nitrogen(nitrification) and phosphorus(enhanced phosphorus removal)

Disinfection is the treatment of waste water that used to reduce the number of microorganisms in water before it transported to environment,the mehods commonly used for disinfection include ozone,chlorine,ultraviolet and chloramine,effctveness is depends on the quality of water like cloudiness and pH. Chlorination:It is commonly used in North America because of its high degree of effectivness only one disadvantage is that it produce chlorinated compound that are carcinogenic to the environment Ultra violet light can be used instead of chemicals like chlorine and iodine,because of lack of chemicals it does not cause harmful effect to microorganism but it vary the genetic structure of bacteria cause inability to produce offsprings.Other disadvantages are it need lamp maintanance and replacement. Ozone:is formed by passing oxygen through high voltage potential.It is unstable and oxidises all organic meterials,itcan be kept near the site and comparitively less poisonous than chlorine because it produce less byproducts than chlorine.One disadvantage is found to be the high cost of equipment.



Demonstrate knowledge of immunology

Element 1

Non specific defence mechanism is the defence against pathogens,it is acquired by inborn and considered as a first line of defence mechanism,innate immunity is a non specific one.It is not along lasting immunity against pathogens Inflamatin is the first line o defence against mammals,is produced by ecisanoids andcytokines released from infected cell,it produce fever by the help of prostagladins and dilution of blood vessels. Cytokine include interleukins for communication between white blood cells,chemokines produce chemotaxis and interferon help to stop protein synthesis in host cell,cytokines are also produced will join with other chemicals for the healing of infected tissues also help to destroy the pathogen.chemical consist ofcomplement protein,regulatory factors like interleukins and antigen presenting cell activate adaptive immune system

Element 2

Adaptve immune system is considered as a specific line of defence mechanism because its response is antigen specific.T cells are special type of leukocytes called T lymphocyte.B cells and T cells are derived from haemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow.B cells proceeds general immune respose while T cell produce cell mediated immune response T cells identify non self pathogen after antigen have been processed and presented in a combination with MHC(membrane attack complex) B cell identify a patogen when immunoglobin on its surface binds to a specific foreign antigen after join with MHC antigen attacks a matching helper T cell which release lymphokines and activates the B cells.Activated B cell then divide to produce offsprings that develops millions of antibodies that identify these antigen


Monoclonal antibodies are(MAb or MoAb) are mono specific antibodies that are identical because it produced from one type if immune cell that are clones of a single parent cell It is produced by fusing myeloma cells with the spleen cells from a mouse which has been immunized with specific antigen,polythene glycol is used to fuse adjecent plasma membranes.Myeloma cells lack hypoxanthinme guaninephosphoribosyl transferase(HGPRT).It synthesis purine which act as an extracellular source,if it is not avaliable cell use alternative biochemical pathway to produce purine. HAT(Hypoxanthine,Aminopterin and thymidine used for hybridoma cell which is fused because unfused myeloma cells cannot grow because of lack of HGPRT Hybridoma grow independently because spleen cell partner supplies HGPRT and the myeloma partner is immortal,because it is a cancer cell fused hybrid cells called hybridomas FDA approved monoclonal antibodies have the variety of practical uses 1.Abciximab is a chimeric one use for inhibition of glycoprotein11b/111a 2.Adalimumab is a human type used for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia 3.Ibritumomabtiuxetan is a murine type used for non-hodgkin lymphoma


Describe soil microbiology and Enrichment techniques


Soil consist of organic matter ,water,air and microbes.It vary according to the locality. Permeability is the physical property of soil it depends on texture structure and organic content.In clay soil pores are small but in sandy soil pores are large.Soil aggregates are the large bodies consist of clay and slit particles which regulate activities of microflora.Moisture has alot of influenze in biological growth.Soil contain inorganic salt which is necessary for the growth of microorganisms. Microorganisms obtain chemicals like carbon and nitrogen from compouds in atmosphere as carbondioxide,methane and nitrogen.Organic matter of the soil termed as humas ,is the products by the synthesis and decomposing activites of the microflora.It contain organic carbon and nitrogen for the microbial development. Ref:google/soil microbiology


Nitrogen cycle is the major biochemical cycle found in atmosphere.In these nitrogen undergoes series of transformation including organic,inorganic and volatile compound Nitrogen fixation is the first step carried out by freeliving organisms and symbiotic bacteria which convert nitrogen in to forms for the use of living organism.These bacteria have nitrogenase enzyme that react with hydrogen and nitrogen to produce ammonia,is then converted in to organic compound by bacteria.Rhizobium is a kind of nitrogen fixing bacteria occurs in root nodules of legumes fix nitrogen by producing ammonia for the exchange of carbohydrate,other plant got nitrogen by absorption in the form of nitrate ion or ammonium ion called assimilation.Minerlization is the process of conversion of nitrogen from dead animal or plant matter to ammonia by certain fungi.Enzyme associated with these are GS Gln synthase,Glu2-oxoglutarate aminotransferrase and glutamate dehydrogenase(GDH).Ammonia convert into nitrites(No2-) by nitrosomonas and then oxidises to nitrates by nitrobacter,thse together called nitrification.Denitrification is the final stage in which nitrates reduced to dinitrogen which is performed by pseudomonas and clostridium,thus it released back to atmosphere cycle

Element 3

organic matter are the carbon compound formed from living organisms.There are three forms of organic matter found in the soil 1.dead form of organic meterial,contain dead plant parts,contribute 85% forms of plant like roots having microbes and soil animals 3.partially decayed organic matter called humus There are certain steps for the decay of organic matter 1.Breakdown of components which are eaisly decompose example sugar,starch and protein ,they are decomposed by bacteria and fungi.Most of the microorganism found in soil have the enzyme which is needed for these compounds.Mites and small soil animals also help to degrade these components. 2.Breakdown of compounds that take several years to decompose such as cellulose (in soluble carbohydrate found in plants)and also lignins(complicated structure found in part of wood).Some bacteria and fungi decompose these compounds but they have no specific enzymes produced ,decompositin is takes place only the favourable condition like temp between 30-35 and soil must not be too alkaline ot too acidic 3.Phenol and compounds located in deep sea take ten or more years to breakdown. 4.Compounds take ten,hundred or thousand years to change.compounds called humus formed by integration of compounds from plant breakdown prouducts.


Measuring microbial activity in the soil is favourable for farmers,land managers and non scientists.Three methods are used to measure micribial activity a respirometry and two methods using cotton strip assay(CSA technique),ie.Image analyser and Tensometer The standard CSA measure the rate of loss of tensile strength over 35 days of incubation period with buried cotton stripby using a tensometer The new CSA technique with the help of a flatbed scanner measure the intensity of staining by microbes and to create an image of a cotton strip,then staining percentage was determined. The respiratory method posses a substrate induced respiration rate(SIR) to determine the microbial mass found in the soil after 120 days of incubation.Because of the strong correlation between Image analysing method and Tensometer method,scientist suggest that image analysing analysing method is used to monitor general community land care group and farmers also the equipment used is readly avaliable. Ref.Google/comparison of methods for measuring soil microbial activity/article


Demonstrate knowledge of bacterial genetics

Element 1

Bacterial DNA is single and circular having no nuclear membrane and no histones,Escheritia coli is a different one having irregular DNA lying freely in cytoplasm.Many bacteria have linear chromosomes.In addition to these some bacteria have one or more extra chromosomal elements which appear circular called plasmids. Plasmids replicate independently at the main chromosome.They carry genetic information coding for antibiotic resistance or for the ability to survive unfavourable conditions Ref. genetics


Transcription starting site:is the place where transcription of RNA begins for a particular gene Ribosomal binding site:is a sequence of mRNA bound by ribosome when initiating protein translation Initiation codon:ATG and AUG are the sequence on mRNA bound with ribosome when initiating protein translation Open reading frame(ORF): is a portion of organisms genome contain sequence of bases for encoding a protein.In gene it is situated between the start codon and the end codon Stop codon:is a nucleotide ,with mRNA that posses the termination of translation and release aminoacid chain.stop codons are UAG(RNA)/TAG(DNA),UAA/TAA and UGA/TGA


There are three process found in the gene expression of bacteria In bacteria transcription start with the binding of RNA polymerase with promoter in DNA .RNA polymerase is found to be core enzyme having five sub units,at the starting site of initiation the core enzyme is bound with sigma factor(Na70),that found to be a suitable base pair for promoter sequence.Non coding strand act as a template for RNA synthesis,when transcription proceeds RNA polymerase transverses the template strand and use base pairing to create an RNA copy and also it transverse the template Strand from 3'-5'.So the transcription proceeds from 5'-3',there by produceing an RNA molececule from 5'-3', a same copy of the coding strand in its sugar phosphate backbone Termination is the next step in which bacteria posses two different transcription termination.In Rho-independent transcription termination,RNA transcription stops after the formation of G-C rich hair pin loop followed by a run of U'S by newly formed RNA,which allows it separate from the DNA template.Rho dependent destabilization occurs in the interaction between the template and the mRNA by aprotein called Rho,there by releasing the newly synthesized mRNA from the elongation complex In translation ,mRNA decoded to produce specific polypeptide according to the genetic code,then mRNA act as a template and leading the production of a chain of amino acids that form a protein.


Lac operon is an example of gene expression control,lac operon is necessary for the metabolism of lactose in E coli and some enteric bacteria and also itb considered as an example for prokaryotic gene regulation.It produce two part control mechanism for the conformation of whether the expends energy producing beta galactosidase,galactose permease,and transacetylene only when necessary,with the help of lac repressor,which halls production in the absence of lactose and catabolic activatior protein(CAP) which promote production in the absence of glucose.First control mechanism is the regulatory response to lactose ,with the help of an intracellular regulatory protein called lactose repressor for assisting the production of beta galactosidase in the absence of lactose.The second control mechanism is associated with response to glucose in which catabolic activator protein(CAP) increase the production of galactosidase in the absence of glucose.

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There are many type of mutation 1.substitution:is a kind of mutation that exchange one base for another .it change a codon to one that encodes different aminoacid and cause a small change in protein 2.Silent mutation:is the change in codon that encodes the same amonoacid and no alternation of the protein produced. 3.Insertion: extra base pairs are inserted in to anaphase in the DNA. 4.Deletion: these are mutations in which a series of DNA is lost. 5.Frame shift:Protein coding DNA divided to codons insertion and deletion can be alter a gene so that encoded message is not correctly passed,these changes are called frame shifts

Mutagen is a chemical or a physical agent that changes the genetic information of an organism and there by increasing the freequency of mutation some of them act as a base analogs and get inserted in to the DNA strand during in the place of substrates.Some of them react with DNA produce structural change which leads to miscopying of the template strand when the DNA is replicated.Some work indirectly by causing the cells to synthesize chemicals that have the direct mutagenic effect.Mutagen is a chemical or a physical agent that changes the genetic information of an organism and there by increasing the freequency of mutation and Mutation/type of mutation

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Reproducton of bacteria occurs by fission and the exchage of heridictory characteristics ,these type of exchange is called horizondal gene transfer.There are three ways for the exchange of DNA between bacteria,congugation,transduction and natural transformation. In conjugation a piece of DNA is copied in one bacterium and transferred to another by a temporary connection called a conjugative pilus .A particular gene that codes for resistance against can be transmitted is the one example for conjugation. In transduction transfer of DNA takes place with the aid of bacteriophage,the gene that codes for the toxin produced by Vibrio cholera is spread by transduction. In transformation DNA is located outside the cell is fragmented and imported in to the cell by recombination.The DNA replace a piece of original DNA in the chromosome of the host is present in antigen variation of pneumococcal capsule. Ref.Pubmed/horizondal transfer of bacterial genes and significance

A large potential for genetic exchange to occur within the dense diverse anaerobic microbial poulation present in GIT of human and animals.Anaerobic bacteria nature to the rumen or hind out harbour both novel antibiotic resistance and novel conjugative transposons Bsi is an insertion element obtain from a null allele of the Adhi locus encoding alcohol dehydrogenase in maize,Bsi is an element having 3203 base pair in length.The 5'LTR is followed by a canonical primer binding binding site with homology to the plant initiator methionyl -tRNA and the 3' CTR is dircetly preceeded by a polypurine stretch.It is obseved in retrovirus and retrotransposones.Bsi encodes two overlapping open reading frame for 740 and 168 aminoacids.The longer open reading frame specifies a peptide with aminoacid homology to the protease and nucleic acid binding moiety of retrovirus and retrotransposones ,and the deducted amino acid sequence encoded by Bsi.In vitro transcribed Bsi complementry RNA was translated in vitro to produce both a protein of 81 kda representing open reading frame and shielded fusion of OFR1 and OFR2 Ref.Pubmed /role of conjugate transposones in spreading antibiotic resistance google/ and coding properties of BSi