## esther´s notes

TYPES OF WRITING ILLUSTRATIVE: It uses examples to show, explain, or prove a point. A good Illustrative writing: *Makes a point.

• Gives detailed and specific examples to show explain or prove the point. *Gives enough examples to get the point across.

NARRATIVE: It tells a story of an event or an experience. A good narrative writing: *Revels something of importance

*Includes all of the important events of the story.


*Begins the story to life with a detail account of what happened. *Presents events in a clear order. DESCRIPTIVE: Creates a clear and vivid impression of the topic, translates your experience of a person, places or things into words. A good descriptive writing: *Creates a main impression about the topic. *Uses concrete and specific details to support the main point. *Uses details that appeals to the five senses. PROCESS ANALYSIS: Either explains how to do something or how something works. Presents the steps involved in the process. Good process analysis writing: *Either helps readers to perform the steps or help them to understand how something works. *Presents the essential steps in a process. *Express the steps in details. *Presents the steps in a logical order. CLASSIFICATION: Organizes or sorts, people or items into categories. Good classification writing: *Make sense of a group of people or items by organizing them into categories. *Uses useful categories. *Uses a simple organizing principle. *Gives example of what fits into each category.

COMPARISON AND CONTRAST: Shows the similarities and differences among subjects, people, ideas, situation or items. Good Comp &Cont writing: *Uses objects that have enough in common to be compared and contrasted. *Serves a purpose. *Presents several important parallel points of comparison. CAUSE AND EFFECT: Is what made an event happened, an effect is what happens as a result of the event. Good cause & effect writing: *Clearly distinguishes between a cause and an effect, *Does not confuse an event that happened after another one. *Gives clear and detailed examples. ARGUMENTATIVE: Takes a position on an issue and offers reasons and supporting evidence to persuade someone. Good argumentative writing: *Takes a strong and definite position on an issue or advises a particular action. *Gives good reasons and supporting evidence to defend the position or recommended action. *Has enthusiasm and energy from start to finish.

example of a paragraph: Larry suddenly woke up from a deep sleep. The sun was dazzling his half-open eyes, and he couldn’t figure out what time it was. The door to his room was closed; the house was immersed in some sort of reckless silence. He slowly got out of his bed and approached the bench right next to the window. For a moment, he thought, he heard a tapping sound coming from the attic. Then again he heard the sound, only this time it seemed to be somewhat closer. He looked outside the window and saw a man going by the left side of the road. On seeing Larry, the man approached his garden’s fence and whistled. At this point, Larry recognized Nick and waved his hand. He quickly got dressed and was about the get down to open the gate, but he again heard someone murmuring in the other part of the house. Larry decided to go to the attic and see what was causing this, now buzzing, sound. He got to the second floor of his house and looked toward the attic. He quickly opened its door and looked inside. Nothing was found. He was about to turn back and attend to his guest when he, suddenly, slipped on the stairs and fell. He called out to Nick to help him get up.

Read more at Suite101: Example of a Narrative Paragraph: Definitions and Examples of Different Kind of Paragraphs http://www.suite101.com/content/example-of-a-narrative-paragraph-a106737#ixzz10M2VZYe3

23/09/2010 TASK# 3


“FROM TEACHING TO LEARNING A NEW PARADIGM FOR UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION” By Robert B. Barr and John Tagg

research questions Do I know the field and its literature well? What are the important research questions in my field? What areas need further exploration? Could my study fill a gap? Lead to greater understanding? Has a great deal of research already been conducted in this topic area? Has this study been done before? If so, is there room for improvement? Is the timing right for this question to be answered? Is it a hot topic, or is it becoming obsolete? Would funding sources be interested? If you are proposing a service program, is the target community interested? Most importantly, will my study have a significant impact on the field?

reference: http://www.theresearchassistant.com/tutorial/2-1.asp unit 3 A thesis statement:

How do I get a thesis? A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a "working thesis," a basic or main idea, an argument that you think you can support with evidence but that may need adjustment along the way.

How do I know if my thesis is strong? If there's time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following:

Examples Suppose you are taking a course on 19th-century America, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: Compare and contrast the reasons why the North and South fought the Civil War. You turn on the computer and type out the following:

The North and South fought the Civil War for many reasons, some of which were the same and some different.

This weak thesis restates the question without providing any additional information. You will expand on this new information in the body of the essay, but it is important that the reader know where you are heading. A reader of this weak thesis might think, "What reasons? How are they the same? How are they different?" Ask yourself these same questions and begin to compare Northern and Southern attitudes (perhaps you first think, "The South believed slavery was right, and the North thought slavery was wrong"). Now, push your comparison toward an interpretation—why did one side think slavery was right and the other side think it was wrong? You look again at the evidence, and you decide that you are going to argue that the North believed slavery was immoral while the South believed it upheld the Southern way of life. You write:

While both sides fought the Civil War over the issue of slavery, the North fought for moral reasons while the South fought to preserve its own institutions.

Now you have a working thesis! Included in this working thesis is a reason for the war and some idea of how the two sides disagreed over this reason. As you write the essay, you will probably begin to characterize these differences more precisely, and your working thesis may start to seem too vague. Maybe you decide that both sides fought for moral reasons, and that they just focused on different moral issues. You end up revising the working thesis into a final thesis that really captures the argument in your paper:

While both Northerners and Southerners believed they fought against tyranny and oppression, Northerners focused on the oppression of slaves while Southerners defended their own right to self-government.

types of variables Independent variable The variable that is manipulated by the research in experimental research Dependent variable Variable, measured by the researcher, which is expected to change as a result of the independent variable manipulation Constants Variables that are not allowed to vary Every experiment has at least two types of variables: independent and dependent. The independent variable (IV) is often thought of as our input variable. It is independent of everything that occurs during the experiment because once it is chosen it does not change. In our experiment on college performance, we chose two groups at the onset, namely, those with work experience and those without. This variable makes up our two independent groups and is therefore called the independent variable.

The dependent variable (DV), or outcome variable, is dependent on our independent variable or what we start with. In this study, college grades would be our dependent variable because it is dependent on work experience. If we chose to also look at men versus women, or older students versus younger students, then these variables would be other independent variables and the outcome, our dependent variable (college grades), would be dependent on them as well. Remember that whatever is the same between the two groups is considered a constant because they do not vary between groups but rather remain the same and therefore do not affect the outcome of each group differently.

Confounding Variables. Researchers must be aware that variables outside of the independent variable(s) may confound or alter the results of a study. As previously discussed, any variable that can potentially play a role in the outcome of a study but which is not part of the study is called a confounding variable. If, for instance, we had two groups in the above mentioned study but did not control for age then age itself may be a confound. Imagine comparing students with work experience with a mean age of 40 with students without work experience and a mean age of 18. Could we reasonably say that work experience caused the student to receive higher grades? This extraneous variable can play havoc on our results as can any intervening variable such as motivation or attention. Addressing confounds before they alter the results of your study is always a wise decision. REFERENCE: http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/variables.html

ANNTOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

WHAT IS AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY?

An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. THE PROCESS

Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic. REFERENCE: http://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/ref/research/skill28.htm#what