Instructional Techniques in Education

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 Lecturer: Mrs. Priscilla Lopez M.Ed.                                           

Class Sessions:

Section 1 MWF: 8:00 - 8:50 a.m. (Room SMD2)

                          Consultation: MWF: 9:00 - 10:00 a.m.

Section 2: MWF: 3:00 - 3:50 p.m. (Room SMD2)

                          Consultation: MWF: 4:00 - 5:00 p.m.

Section 3: MW: 5:30 - 6:45 p.m. (Room SMD3)

  Consultation: MW: 4:30 - 5:25 p.m.                               

Contact Numbers: Belmopan: 8223680 ext 399 Mobile: 660 8247 Email:


Section I: General Course Information

Prerequisite: Successful completion of: EDUC 222 Teaching Methods EDUC 310 Introduction to Curriculum EDUC 311 Introduction to Primary Curriculum

                                                           EDUC 342 Psychology of  Learning

Course description: This course will provide students with a variety of skills to effectively teach using a repertoire of instructional practices. Through the use of reinforcements, micro-teaching and in-class activities, teachers will use inductive and deductive models of teaching to develop skills in instructional planning, teaching and assessment. This course will also address curriculum problems and standards appropriate to the elementary/secondary school curriculum.

Course Goals and Objectives

Upon successful completion of all assignments, written examinations, micro- teaching, class discussion and activities, students will be able to:

• use instructional strategies that will enable learners to think critically and develop a deep understanding of content • use strategies to enable teachers to develop the skill to guide learners to work collaboratively to reach common goals. • plan for instruction by preparing a unit of work and daily lesson plans. • organize curriculum and instructional tasks which are developmentally appropriate. • describe and use different questioning techniques to stimulate thinking, clarify information, identify discrepancies and to seek alternatives. • demonstrate appropriate use of a number of teaching approaches. • describe and use alternative forms of assessment to promote learning. • demonstrate knowledge and use of a number of management intervention


Text: Kauchak D. P, Eggen. P. D (2003). Teaching and Learning: Research Based Methods 4th Ed. Allyn and Bacon.

COURSE GUIDELINES Week 1 ( January 12- 16, 2009)

Assigned Reading Chapter One & Three

1. Essential Teaching Skills (Class Handout) 2. Learning to Teach p. 3 -16. 3. Variables in Instructional Planning p. 77-84

Class and Group Activities:

Activity 1: In groups of 4 describe indicators of Effective Teaching Activity 2: Whole class discussion: Is Background Content Knowledge the most

                  important attribute/variable of Effective Teaching?  

Activity 3: Whole class discussion: If good teaching is dependent on the students’

                  learning, describe activities that  can foster/ promote conceptual 

Terminologies: Pedagogical Content Knowledge, global and lesson specific motivation, introductory focus, sensory focus, instructional alignment

Week 2 and 3 (January 19 – 23 & 26 – 29, 2009)

Assigned Readings Chapters Five, Three & Eight 1. Components of Behavioral Objectives 2. Domains of Learning p. 85 3. Types of Concepts p. 255 - 258

Class and Group Activities:

Activity 1: Use worksheets to write performance objectives Activity 2: Write performances in each of the 6 levels in Bloom’s Taxonomy of


Activity 3: Use worksheets to write objectives with performances in the cognitive,

                    affective and psychomotor domain

Activity 4: Write concept statements with two supporting references. Write

                    Coordinate, subordinate and superordinate concepts

Terminologies: super-ordinate concepts, coordinate concepts, sub-ordinate concepts

Grading: DUE DATES In Class 1: Writing Performance Objectives Wk 2 day 2 In Class 2: super-ordinate, coordinate and subordinate concepts Wk 3 day 2

Week 4 and 5 & 6 (February 2 – 6, 9 – 13 & 16 – 19, 2009)

Assigned Reading Handouts: Guidelines for Instructional Planning & Domains of Learning 1. Models of Teaching (Discussion, Guided Discovery, Practice and Drill) 2. Graphic Organizers 3. Components of a Lesson Plan 4. Components of a Unit of Work

Class and Group Activities:

Activity 1: Write lesson plans consistent with UB’s guidelines for Instructional Planning. Activity 2, 3 & 4: Lesson Development reflective of the guidelines in the first 3 Models

                             of Teaching

Terminologies: efficacy expectation, teacher efficacy, student efficacy,

Teaching Tip: (1) KWL Strategies

Grading: DUE DATES 1. Lesson Plan 1:

In Pairs students are required to write ONE lesson plan reflecting Wk 5 day 2 The Discussion Approach or Practice and Drill

2. In class 3: Graphic Organizer Wk 6 day 1 3. In-class 4: Sample Unit of Work Wk 6 day 2/3

Micro Teaching 1: Discussion Wk 6 Day 1 Micro Teaching 2: Guided Discovery Wk 6 Day 2

Week 7 & 8 (February 23 – 26, & March 2 – 6, 2009)

Assigned Readings: Chapter Five and Eleven:

1.  Teacher Centered & Learner Centered Education                                                        
2.  Essential Elements of Questioning p. 166- 177

Class and Group Activities:

Activity: 1 Class Debate: Learning occurs only when students are immersed in

                  cooperative learning activities

Activity: 2 Write questions reflecting the cognitive levels in Bloom’s Taxonomy

Terminologies: zone of proximal development, inductive and deductive concept teaching, instructional scaffolding

Teaching Tip: Effective Questioning Strategies


       						                              DUE DATES
Lesson Plan Two and Sample Unit Due                                        Wk 7 day 2
 Group 3 Micro-teaching ( Practice and Drill using 
  Effective Questioning Strategies)                                                    Wk 8 day 2

Week 9, 10 & 11 ( March 9- 13, 16-20 & 23- 27)

Chapter Seven, Eight and Nine: Cooperative Learning Strategies

                                           Visual Aids (Sentence strips & flash cards)
                                            Constructivist Approach to Learning

Class and Group Activities:

Activity 1: Form Groups to discuss 5 Cooperative Learning Strategies Activity 2: Develop sentence strips and flash cards consistent with the guidelines for appropriate development of Audio Visual Aids Activity 3: Design a Class Plan reflecting at least 3 Cooperative Learning Strategies

Terminologies: STAD, Jig saw 11

Grading: Due Date

1. Quiz 1 (Readings from wk 1-8) Wk 9 day 2 2. Micro Teaching 4

   (Practice and Drill reflecting 3 Cooperative Learning)   		   Wk 10 &11

Week 12, 13, 14 (March 30 & April 3, 6- 10 & 13 – 17)

Chapters: Eight, Ten & Twelve,

Models of Teaching: Inductive Concept Teaching/, Deductive Concept Teaching, Integrative Model, Problem Solving Approach, Assessment

Class and Group Activities: Differentiate between types of assessment. Analyze the importance of alternative forms of assessment.

Terminologies: reliability, validity, alternative assessment, evaluation, assessment, algorithm, heuristics, anchored instruction, self directed learning

Grading: DUE DATES

1. Micro Teaching 5: Inductive Concept Teaching Week 12 Day 2 2. Micro Teaching 6: Deductive Concept Teaching Week 13 Day 2 3. Micro Teaching 7: Integrative Model Week 14 Day 2

Week 15

Assigned Reading Chapter 6: Importance of Classroom Management, Planning for Classroom Management, Implementing Management Plans, Management Intervention p. 191-215 Video discussion

Class and Group Activity: Assessing the importance of classroom management to instructional practice. Developing strategies addressing management problems, Review for Final Examination

Terminologies: classroom management, logical and natural consequences, withitness, class school consistency, assertive discipline, orchestration, overlapping, momentum, smoothness, desist, indirect cues

Week 16: Problem Based Learning

Activity 1: Develop Learning Centers reflecting Problem Based Learning Refer to Grading Criteria for details

Section 11: Evaluation

60% course work (Micro-teachings and lesson evaluation 30%, mid-term 10%, all other course work requirements 20%) 40% final examination

Final score will be evaluated based on U.B grading scale.

Description and Grade Point for Assignments Assignments Points REFLECTION ONE: Critically appraise ONE of the following topics:

Topic 1:. An individual may possess a substantial amount of subject-matter knowledge, yet be unable to design and implement instructional methods to enhance student learning due to a lack of pedagogical ability.

Topic 2: An individual may possess some generic pedagogical skills, yet have limited subject-matter knowledge and again be predisposed to ineffective teaching

Submission Requirements: One page (8 ½ by 11) font 12, spacing 1.5. Kindly refer to grading criteria for additional details 30 EVALUATIONS 1. Micro Teaching: Reflect on your groups’ micro teaching using the guidelines below: 1. Strengths 2. Areas for Improvement 3. Follow-up: What can be done to further reinforce the concept(s) taught? 15

IN CLASS GROUP ACTIVITIES: Complete each of the six class activities to demonstrate mastery of specific concepts. 25x 10 =250 PARTICIPATION The 15 point participation score will be awarded to students who have completed class readings beforehand and actively participate in class activities. 15 GROUP PRESENTATION AND ACTIVITIES Students will participate in one major group presentation. The guidelines are as follows:

1. Models of Teaching

Based on the Model of Teaching Assigned to your group, 1. Write a lesson Plan illustrating the use of the Model. 2. Choose a school and an appropriate class to teach the lesson. 3. At least one sensory focus should be used during the micro-teaching. 4. Video Record the lesson 5. Evaluate the strengths, weaknesses and identify follow- up activities. Provide the instructor with 1,4 & 5 (Grading Criteria will be provided)

LESSON PLANS Each student will be required to write three lesson plans. Guidelines will be provided. 50 x 2= 100 UNIT OF WORK Individual students are required to develop: 1. one graphic organizer 2. Section 1 and 2 of a unit of work . 3. Use one sub-topic to develop a lesson plan . T.B.A

	50  (10% of course work)

Class Activities to be dated:

1. UB open Day Educational Games Display ( Grading Criteria to be provided)

2. FEA community service outreach. Each student is ask to donate a story book suitable for a child in Infant 1 to Standard 4. (15 participation points for book donation, 25 points for participating in an organized activity to donate book to students and schools. )

3. Observe a teacher teaching at a level relevant to your training. Complete Observation Instrument. Teach a follow up lesson. Provide the instructor with a copy of the lesson plan. Pictures illustrating that the teaching activity occurred and a lesson evaluation.


In class Group Activities

Activities reflect the guidelines provided by course lecturer 5 All guidelines are carefully develop and demonstrate the standards outlined for the activity. 10 Activity was completed within the prescribed class time 5 Activity is shared with peers in an organized and clear manner. 5

                                                                                             Total              25 

Grading Criteria for Evaluation for Micro-teaching

Clear, detailed evaluation 5 Describes how the evaluation went and what modifications are necessary 10

                                                                                                Total                15  

Grading Criteria for Models of Teaching

Lesson Plan (50 points see criteria above) 50 The approach is taught in a clear manner 10 The introduction is motivation 5 The development is taught in a clear sequential manner 20 Students are actively engaged 10 The audio visual aids/sensory focus are used appropriately 10 All audio visuals are appropriately made (borders, lettering, color) 10 Total 115

                                                                               Lesson  Evaluation   15

Grading Criteria for Unit of Work and Lesson Plan

Rubric Explanation Score Needs work The criterion is unclear or ambiguous 1 Fair Further clarity and development is necessary. 2 Good The criterion is evident but it can be further clarified or developed 3 Very Good The criterion is evident and is clearly presented. 4 Excellent The criterion is exceptionally developed/presented. That is: ideas are clearly organized, applicable, and demonstrate high standards. 5 Criterion: 1 2 3 4 5 Comments 1. Unit of Work 1. The graphic organizer clearly illustrates the sub-topics in the unit. 2. The Goals are in the cognitive and affective domain 3. The goals are clearly stated. 4. The goals relate to the objectives. 5.The objective(s) are relevant and clearly stated 6.The activities in the unit are relevant for the level of students and specific teaching learning strategies are stated. 7. The activities are more child-centered than teacher centered. 8. Alternative forms of assessment are specified and clearly explained. 9. An appropriate culminating activity is included 10. Sub-topics are arranged using the format presented. .Lesson Planning 1. The objective has a condition and performances. 2. The verbs in the objectives reflects high and low level performances 3. Accurate and current content supported with appropriate examples 4. The activities in the development are clearly sequenced and aids in the development of the concept. 5. Previous Knowledge is relevant and appropriate. 6. Previous Knowledge is linked to lesson introduction. 7. The lesson introduction provides a motivation hook and is linked the lesson development 8. The concluding activity is appropriate. A statement of closure is included. 9. Clear statement(s) indicating how students will be assessed 10. At least 2 references and page numbers are listed.

Class Policies and Expectations:

1. In order to get full credit for this course, student must attend no less than 80% of the


2. If you miss a class, it is your responsibility to arrange with members of the class for,

   handouts and so on.

3. All assignments and group projects must be submitted on time. Late assignments will

   attract a 20% will be deduction. 

4. Kindly turn off or place cellular phones on vibrate before the commencement of

   each class. 

5. Students are responsible to safe guard all personal items.


Belize Teacher Training College (1995). Teaching Methods Modules 1-12.

Eggen, P,. & Kauchak, D. (2002). Methods for teaching: Promoting student learning. (6th Ed. ) Merrill Prentice Hall. Columbus Ohio

Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2000). Strategies for Teachers: Teaching Content and Thinking Skils: Allyn and Bacon.

Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (1998). Learning and teaching: Research-based methods (3rd ed.). Needham Height: MA.

Freigberg, H,. & Driscoll, A. (2002) Universal teaching strategies. (3rd Ed.) Allyn and Bacon. MA.

Gronlund, N. (2000) Writing Objectives for Teaching and Assessment. (7th Ed. ) Merrill Prentice Hall. Columbus Ohio

Kim, E., & Kellough, R. (2000). A resource guide for secondary school teaching: Merrill Prentice Hall. Columbus Ohio Planning for competency (6th ed.). Macmillan Publishing Company: New York.