VirtualMV/Digital Learning Technologies/Pedagogies/Approaches

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VmvIcon Objective.png

Pedagogical approaches

By the end of this page you will be able to:

  • Understand a selection of teaching and learning methods and strategies

Active Learning

Active learning refers to techniques where students do more than simply listen to a lecture. Students are DOING something including discovering, processing, and applying information ( McKinney, 2010)[1] Examples

  • Think-Pair-Share: Give students a task such as a question or problem to solve, an original example to develop, etc.
  • Collaborative learning groups: These may be formal or informal, graded or not, short-term or long-term. Generally, you assign students to heterogeneous groups of 3-6 students.
  • Student-led review sessions: Instead of the traditional instructor-led review session, have the students do the work
  • Games: Games such as jeopardy and crossword puzzles can be adapted to course material and used for review, for assignments, or for exams.
  • Analysis or reactions to videos
  • Student debates: These can be formal or informal, individual or group, graded or not, etc.
  • Student generated exam questions: This can be used for review or for the actual exam.
  • Mini-research proposals or projects; a class research symposium
  • Analyze case studies
  • Keeping journals or logs
  • Write and produce a newsletter
  • Concept mapping: Here students create visual representations of models, ideas, and the relationships between concepts.

Project-Based Learning

Problem-based Learning

Problem-based learning (PBL) means that learning is driven by challenging, open-ended problems, which are solved collaboratively in small groups. The tutors role is one of a facilitator rather than teacher. PBL is an authentic activity, which means the learning goes beyond the learning environment and mimics real world activities. The problems are often ill-structured and disordered (as in real life) and the learner is expected to assume a degree of responsibility for their own learning.

Teaching, Learning and Assessment for an Interactive World



  • Scaffolding
  • Cognitive load

VmvIcon References.png References

  1. McKinney, K. (2010). Active Learning. Retrieved October 30, 2010 from
  2. Project-Based Learning Strategies and Research for Educators.(2010) In GuideToOnlineSchools. Retrieved August 24, 2010 from
  3. Gurrie, J. (2003). Whats your problem? Retrieved March 01 2012, from
  4. Savery, J. R. (2006). Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions. The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1(1). Retrieved March 01 2012, from
  5. Herrington, J., Oliver, R., & Reeves, T. (2002). 10 characteristics of authentic learning. Retrieved March 01, 2012, from

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VirtualMV/Digital Learning Technologies/Pedagogies/Approaches. (2017). In WikiEducator/VirtualMV wiki. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from    (zotero)