Hello, My name is Vikram Yadav.
Man’s progress rests squarely on a pedestal of accurate
measurement. Numerous facts of measurement are so intertwined in
his daily life that he rarely pauses to appreciate their significance.
Yet a move frustrating existence can hardly be imagined than one
in which there were no firm, accurate answer to the question: What time? How much? What size? How fast? What price?
The urgent necessity to provide meaningful answer to such questions prompted early man to improvise measuring techniques. He learned to measure distance with his foot, with his hand, or by his pace. He estimated time by the height of the sun or the length of his shadow. These methods, although crude, provided readily understandable measures and were used for the same important reasons as modern techniques: - (1) The need to summarize data and (2) The need to objectify measurement
Measurement has always been plagued with two type of error: - (1) Error inherent in the measuring instrument and (2) Error in the application of the instruments. Through history measurement instruments have been reduced. However, although neither source of error has been eliminated, the level of refinement in measurement is a good yardstick for judging a nation's scientific and cultural progress. In the ancient world, those nations, which possessed advanced mathematics, showed the greatest progress. Th Egyptians and the Greeks are noteworthy examples, and some of their mathematical and measurement concepts are still useful today. Modern society is characterized by great diversity in cultural and technological advancement, ranging from primitive societies in which crude measurement is used to societies in which cultural-scientific progress greatly exceeds that ever before attained by human beings. In these advanced societies a great. Variety of refined measurement instruments is used, not only in science but also in social sciences and education.
The process of teaching always involves teaching and corresponding evaluation of the results of such teaching. Evaluation is a process of making judgement about the quality and worth of an educational programme and a student’s attainments. This is an essential approach in constantly updating and modifying the teaching methods to produce the desired results. Hence in education the need for a proper form of measurement and evaluation of pupil's progress becomes indispensable.
In an educational programme evaluation is an essential step in the total process, which includes planning, instruction, measurement, evaluation and possible instructional change based on the evaluation. For the data to have relevance and importance it is necessary first to plan the objectives for the measurements, then to measure, then to analyse and evaluate the data and finally to apply the results in educational changes.
From a teacher's point of view, measurement and evaluation are a set of tools used in ascertaining the degrees of his achievement in the field of education.
Measurement and evaluation encompass not only written or oral tests, but also such detonators such as participation in school programme, individual performances and contributions.