User:Lstollings/Instructional design for Dummies
This page originally designed by Linda Stollings (2007) Red links denote internal wiki links associated with another wikihost
- 1 A Reference for the Rest of Us?
- 2 Background
- 3 The Nine Learning Events
- 4 Reframing the 'Old' into the 'New'
- 5 Utilizing the Nine Instructional Ingredients to Create an eClectic Learning Stew
- 6 References
- 7 See also
A Reference for the Rest of Us?
Robert M. Gagne's nine learning events (or events of instruction) have been in use by instructional designers since their introduction in the 1960s. Originally, Gagne worked extensively in developing the field of military training, however these events have been adopted by educators and designers as one of the key theories in both training and educational contexts. Many teachers and trainers have used them as a structure for lesson planning. Someargue that Gagne's nine events are dated and dull, however they still offer a rational framework which beginning instructional designers can use to shape meaningful learning spaces. While these nine events are based on behaviourist and cognitive/information processing learning theories, their simplicity provides a design framework that can apply to a variety of educational contexts. As well, with some imagination they can also be conceptualized to incorporate components of constructivist and sociocultural theories to create an eclectic learning environment.
Instruction has been defined as "a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal processes of learning" (Gagne, Wager, Golas & Keller, 2005, p.194). As a cognitive psychologist, Gagne first proposed nine events of intruction and conditions of learning in 1965 as means to activate and support the processes of information processing. Interestingly, in 1959, Gagne and Jerome Brunerworked on parallel working groups borne out a conference in Cape Cod on science education (Bruner, 1963). Bruner's earliest work is echoed in Gagne's learning events, especially in terms of concepts such as readiness, structure and transfer.
Each of Gagne's learning events was originally designed to produce an 'output' that acts as an 'input' for the next stage in the sequence. However, Gagne was open to the influence of many other educational theorists, which lead him to suggest that these events in their entirety should be regarded as one form of instructional strategy. Further, he noted that the order of events can be altered and not all events need be present in every lesson (Gagne et al., 2005). In the end, the nine events are useful in that they represent repeatedly validated key stages in the instructional process (Richey, 2000). The key question designers need to ask themselves is, "What does the learner need at this point in the task?"
The Nine Learning Events
The following table outlines Gagne's Nine Events and the corresponding cognitive process it fuels.
INSTRUCTIONAL EVENT Relation to Learning Process Gaining attention Reception of patterns of neural impulses Informing the learner of the objective Activiating a process of executive control Stimulating recall of prerequisite learned capabilities Retrieval of prior learning to working memory Presenting the stimulus material Emphasizing features for selective perception Providing learning guidance Semantic encoding; cues for retrieval Eliciting performance Activating response organization Providing feedback about performance correctness Establishing reinforcement Assessing the performance Activating retrieval; making reinforcement possible Enhancing retention and transfer Providing cues and strategies for retrieval
(Gagne et al., 2005, p. 195)
Practice Makes it Perfect?
Researchers found that when altering the presence of each of the events during computer-based instruction, the inclusion of practice (eliciting performance), combined with feedback was consistently effective for enhancing student achievement. Furthermore, it was noted that students had a more positive attitude toward instruction that included practice and examples throughout the program (Martin, Klein & Sullivan, 2004).
Reframing the 'Old' into the 'New'
The following table suggests some examples of how the nine events might be applied to the design of three different technology-supported learning environments.
|Event||Games||Learning Objects||CMS/LMS See also VLE|
|Informing the learner of the objective||
|Presenting the material||
|Providing learning guidance||
|Enhancing retention and transfer||
(Becker, 2005; Gagne et al., 2005)
Utilizing the Nine Instructional Ingredients to Create an eClectic Learning Stew
While the nine events do have their roots in behaviourism, cognition and information processing, they can still provide a guiding hand in the development and design of learning environments that include elements of constructivist and sociocultural theories. The following provides some suggestions on how to leverage the events to ensure a well-rounded learning environment. Of course not all entries will be included in any given learning event; this merely shows where designers can situate their choices.
- stimulate learners curiousity with questions
- present meaningful and relevant challenge
Providing learner with objective
- this can be a general goal that is then personalized by the learner
- utilize problem based learning
- students can tie new learning to past constructions of knowledge
- incorporate the use of concept maps
Presenting the material
- facilitate student ownership of learning material
- have students create authentic material ie. web-sites, blogs, hypertexts
- provides spaces for students to construct knowledge
- provide models
- create Microworlds
- incorporate games
Guiding the learning
- provide guiding questions
- utilize zones of proximal development See also
- provide for scaffolding
- set up communities of learners
- incorporate knowledge building networks
- provide authentic problem-based tasks around existing software packages and forms of "Edutainment"
- provide spaces for inquiry
- set up chat rooms for peer feedback/collaboration
- allow students to reflect on their own learning
Assessing the performance
- monitor student's progress
- have students self-assess their progress
- incorporate ePortfolios
Enhance transfer and retention
- once students become 'experts' have them coach/scaffold others
Becker, K. (2005). How are games educational? Learning theories embodied in games. Proceedings of DiGRA 2005 Conference. Retrieved February 15, 2007 from http://www.digra.org/dl/db/06278.23299.pdf
Bruner, J. (1963). The process of education. New York, NY: Random House.
Constructivist theory (J. Bruner). [On-line]. Retrieved February 20, 2007 from http://www.gwu.edu/~tip/bruner.html
Gagne, R.M., Wager, W.W., Golas, K.G. & Keller, J.M. (2005). Principles of instructional design. Toronto, ON: Thomson Wadsworth.
Martin, F., Klein, J. & Sullivan, H. (2004). Effects of instructional events in computer-based instruction. Association for Educational Communications and Technology. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED484984). 
Richey, R.C. (Ed.). (2000). The legacy of Robert Gagne. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Research and Improvement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED445674). Available online or Buy here
Applying the Nine Events to Multimedia 
Applying the Nine Events to PowerPoint Presentations 
Instructional Design Theory and ADDIE 
Don Clark's Instructional Systems Design Page (the Nine Events are mentioned under Development)
Don Clark's Blog Condemning (and leading a discussion on) the Use of the Nine Learning Events 
Interesting Blog in Response to Don Clark's Article 
Gagne's Conditions of Learning Page at TIP 
Bruner, Gagne and Ausubel - The Three Cogniteers? 
Comprehensive Site Outlining Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction 
The Nine Events - Suitable for Framing 
Free Gagne's Nine Event Screensaver