User:Kstone/Temp/Adult Learning Handout.doc

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Malcolm Knowles’ Andragogy: Assumptions and Critiques

What is Andragogy?

Describe in your words what you think Andragogy is.

Describe in your own words what the assumptions mean.

Six Assumptions Description
The Need to Know
Learner’s Self-Concept
Role of Experience
Readiness to Learn
Orientation to Learning

What are some concerns related to Andragogy and the six assumptions?

List the concerns or critques that are assoicated with Andragogy.

What will you take away from this training? Will you change how you think about adult learning or change anything in your practice? Why or why not? How?

Share your take-aways.

Resources for Andragogy and Adult Learning Assumptions

Cameron, D. R. (1997). Self-Directed Learning: Toward a Comprehensive Model. Adult Education Quarterly, 48(1), 18-33. Retrieved from

Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of Adult Learners with Implications for Online Learning Design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137-159.

Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. G., & Swanson, R. A.  (1998). The adult learner: The definitive classic in adult education and human resources development. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.

Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sandlin, J. A. (2005). Andragogy and its discontents: An analysis of andragogy from three critical perspectives. PAACE Journal of Lifelong Learning, 14, 25-42. Retrieved from

Song, L., & Hill, J. R. (2007). A conceptual model for understanding self-directed learning in online environments. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 6(1), 27-42. Retrieved from