User:Edselt/Academic Writing notes

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Academic Writing Notes


How to write an Article Review

First of all to write an article review you should select a topic, but you need to specify the topic avoiding to be very general in order to have specific ideas focusing our information in a common point according with the author that we are going to investigate and the information that we are going to review.

Now that we have our topic we should select the reference in this case an article from an author that is related with our selected topic, now that we have the article we precede to read it underlying important ideas for our essay and in that way we will select, the important aspects that we will be working with.

Now that we have our article and the information we can now start writing for this we will write a thesis statement according to what we want to explain or investigate the article.

Now we can write our introductory paragraph comparing our ideas with the ideas of the author in a general way, showing what we want to describe.

Now we can develop our ideas in the next paragraphs, comparing our ideas with the author and comparing them, and in this way we will be defining our investigation about the article and clarifying some therms and ideas and giving the reference of our ideas through authors' writing.

Now that we already have our ideas in a clear way we can conclude the topic. In the conclusion we can talk about the investigation, if we consider that our ideas according to the article are right or we can also say commentaries in order to express our point of view about the topic summarizing the information and reflecting with new ideas that we discovered during our article review and during our essay.

Article Review Essay

Translation in Linguistics

Is translation closely related to linguistics considering that the process of translation doesn't have a direc impact on it?

As a translator we need to analize text and it can be analized in different ways. According to J. Tyson (2000), the translation can be analized from a point of view of the phonetics and also he states that these system of sounds in a language can be analized from a point of view of morphology.If we focus our attention in those therms when we are translating, we will be involved in aspects of linguistics seeing the translation from the phonetical, morphological and sintactical aspects in the way that we can also analyze conotation and different word combination to clarify our translation and the information that we are analizing.

Talking about phonetics, the translator should consider this important aspect. "In order to preserve the phonological structure, the translators have comprised on preserving sintax and one might easily argue the meaning" ( J. Tyson, 2000) here we can see clearly the importance of phonology during a translation, because the translator should conserve the sintaxis that is required to translate the phonological conotation that is required to express the text in a correct way. Here we can easily analyze the importance of linguistics as a translator consider this important aspect.

The Morphology is an important aspect to consider for a translator. It is focused on the meaning and it is very important to have a exact accuracy. According to J. Tyson (2000) The morphology is an important aspect to consider during the translation process, he also states that is contained in the phonological conotation of a translation and also in the meaning of the words because with it we can have an accurately translation. So for this reason the linguistics shold be considered every time we write and in this case it will be considered for the translation process.

The sintax is important for the structure of any text. In translation it is an important part of the process of translation. According to J Tyson (2000) translators should conserve the original sintax of a text when they are translating information, with this information we can reflect clearly the importance of the linguistics for a translator. By preserving the sintax we can conserve an important aspect of the text that we will be translating because we will follow the structure of the original text.

To conclude we can assume from the investigation that oviously the linguistic can be found every time when we are using the language. Talking about translation even that people think that it doesn't have a direct impact on linguistics, we can say that translators can put their attention in aspects like the phonological, morphological and sintactical structures of a text when they are translating, in that way we will be doing a better translation and we will also translate more aspects that will make a translator a better linguist by working and using the aspects that we were analyzing during this research demonstrating that the translation can have an impact on linguistics.

Thesis Statement:

  • tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
    * is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
    * directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
    * makes a claim that others might dispute.
    * is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.

Example: Is translation closely related to linguistics considering that the process of translation doesn't have a direct impact on it?

ely's comments:the thesis statement is not a question your example sounds more like research question, cesar try to give your general idea about your research or maybe what you and your redears expect from this investigation something like that.

Research Question:

A research question is the methodological point of departure of scholarly research in both the natural sciences and humanities. The research will answer any question posed. At an undergraduate level, the answer to the research question is the thesis statement.

A research question may be used in anything from a high-school or university term paper to a funding proposal for a major postgraduate research project costing millions of dollars.

Example: Why the translation should be considered as a part of linguistics??


The terms "dependent variable" and "independent variable" are used in similar but subtly different ways in mathematics and statistics as part of the standard terminology in those subjects. They are used to distinguish between two types of quantities being considered, separating them into those available at the start of a process and those being created by it, where the latter (dependent variables) are dependent on the former (independent variables)

The independent variable is typically the variable representing the value being manipulated or changed and the dependent variable is the observed result of the independent variable being manipulated.

example: age, weight, height

Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a bibliography that gives a summary of the research that has been done. It is still an alphabetical list of research sources. In addition to bibliographic data, an annotated bibliography provides a brief summary or annotation.

The annotation usually contains a brief summary of content and a short analysis or evaluation. Depending on your assignment you may be asked to reflect, summarise, critique, evaluate or analyse the source.

The purpose of annotations is to provide the reader with a summary and an evaluation of the source. In order to write a successful annotation, each summary must be concise. An annotation should display the source's central idea(s) and give the reader a general idea of what the source is about.

Malone, J., (1988) The science of Linguistics in the art of translation, State University of New York, New York, U.S.A.

It will help me to understand if the connotation, talking about linguistics, will affect the original idea of the author at the time when translating, so this book presents the ideas that are related with linguistic factors focusing ourselves on connotation related with translation having information that can help us to evaluate and analyze tha impact that it have and how much we should consider those aspects.

The required information of the book can be found in several parts, so it will give me different points of view.

Malmkjer, K. (2005) The science of Linguistics and the Language of translation, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburg, London

This book will help me to understand more about the importance of linguistics on translation, it will be very helpful to define if the translation process is beign considered as a part of linguistics analizing the concept of connotation and use of language during the translation process

This book is reelevant in the way that it focus the investigation on the use of language and at the same time about translation helping to analize and compare those important concepts and to define the connotative factors that are used when translating.

Nida, E., (1969). The Theory and Practice of Translation, United Bible Societies, Netherlands

The information from this book can be very useful to separate concepts and to create ideas, because you can find the concept in a separate way so you can create your own ideas and you can analize the author's ideas in order to have a clear concept about the information helping you to state and conclude aspects that can help you to understand more about translation, without mixing ideas and being more clear the information that you are using.

With this new information we can support a lot of ideas because with the use of the concepts from this book we will state new ideas and modify other ones being a good way to be understandable. We can find information about the process of translation which will help us to conclude the topic.

Loffredo, E. et al (2006) Translation and creativity: perspectives on creative writing and translation, Continuum, New Yorkm, U.S.A.

This book will help me to investigate the creativity that should be involved during the translation process, which is important to define it in the context of the linguistics and writing to analyze if it is important to make a translation more understandable and also with the use of elements that are important during a translation in order to conserve the connotation of the author so from this book i will also analize those perspectives that can be involved during the same translation process and also how a translation can have different versions being all of them correct, so with this book i will analyze which of those translations is the most accurately with the information of the author, helping me to define several concepts of my investigation, which are involved with the process of translation

Kumar, B. (2003) A Handbook of Translation Studies, Atlantic, New Delhi, India

This book states different focus about the translation, even that it is very general it will help me to investigate different factors that a translator should consider during the process of translation, in this way i will analyze different aspects that are involved to transcribe information, and in this way i will locate important aspects of linguistics that we can find during the process of translation and in this way we will know how those factors affects the original translation, taking in consideration from the book to the author ideas, and other important factors that modifies the translation in different ways and aspects that are contained during the process of translation and also in the linguistics, analizing those aspects and checking if they are involved in the connotation and linguistics of the translation.

Nord, C. (1988) Text analysis in translation: theory, methodology, and didactic application of a model for translation - oriented text analysis, Rodopi, Amsterdam, Netherlands

This book talks about all the main points of translation so it will help me to define most of the concepts that i need to create a objective idea about my topic and investigation, the theoretical aspects of the book will help me to define common concepts of translation, the methodology that is involved in the process and how it affects the original text and how we can apply different methods during the process of translation, analizing all those important aspects to create a useful idea were we will be able to use it for the investigation to define some concepts and to create new ideas about other aspects that are important for the topic and the information related with the translation process

Schäffner, C. et al (1984) Developing translation competence, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, Netherlands

This book talks about translation in an advanced level which is important because i need to know the factors that are used during the translation process when there is a technical context and analize what affects the author ideas at that level and at the same time i can compare the information with the different levels involved in translation checking if it have a great impact on the translation process and how it affects the author ideas and in which level the translation can be more accurately with the original text and with the information.


This research is important in the way that a translator can improve his translation technique in the way that he will be able to conserve important linguitic factors that can be considered when they are translating. The use of context sometimes is not that important when we are translating but sometimes it has a direct impact on the meaning of the translation, that's why is important to analyze the translation process from a linguistical point of view in order to improve it and to make it better and more understandable and aducated for the reader and conserving the author ideas to have a better accuracy and to develop the skills of a translator.


It will help to the field of translation to have a better methodology in their procedures and it's relation with linguistic, this can include the translation as a part of linguistics in the way that languages should have a relation when they are translated, also it can be included as an important factor on the use of grammatical factors when we need to conserve the connotation of the author or from the context that it is involved


It will help to the translators to work together with linguists in the way that they will be closely relathed in their methodolgies. It can help to improve the relation among cultures conserving during the translation contextual factors that can have a great impact on the understanding of a text including their cultural aspects that are important to understand when we are reading a text, even more if it is focused on culture, the translation can change the meaning of some parts or omit important aspects of contextual factors of the desscription from a culture, that's why is important to be aware of those factors


It will help to translators to change the way they think when they are translating, focusing their attention in connotative factors and not only on transcribe information from one language to another, this can help to the reader tofocus the way that he persieve the information, because if the translation doesn't have a stated connotative factor, it will not cause the desired impact on the attention of the reader


It can change the way that the translation methods are taught in the way that they can focus their methodology in linguistical factors that are closely related to linguistic, changing the way that translators learn and assigning an important part on the field of linguistics at the same time that the teaching method now can be focused on connotative factors that translation learners never consider before, so for that reason it cold be good to change the methodology and the factors that are contained in the curriculum of the translator when they are learning to use and translate the information conserving the main context