Source: University of Denver
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TOURISM
- Three main impact areas
- Environmental impacts at the global level
- Other industry impacts of tourism
- How tourism can contribute to environmental conservation
HOW TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEDRVETION
The tourism industry can contribute to conservation through.
- Direct financial contributions
Tourism can contribute directly to the conservation of sensitive areas and habitat.
Revenue from park-entrance fees and similar sources can be allocated specifically to pay for the protection and management of environmentally sensitive areas. Special fees for park operations or conservation activities can be collected from tourists or tour operators.
The tour operator Discovery Intitialves, which is a member of the Tour Operators Initiative for Sustainable Tourism Development, makes an annual financial contribution to the Orangutan Foundation of some US$ 45,000. the money is earned from only 5 tour groups of 10 people each visiting the Tanjing Putting National Park in Central Kalimantan. The park is under huge pressures from deforestation and river pollution from unrestricted gold mining. This money directly funds park staff and rangers, rehabilitation efforts for young orangutans, and the care center. It provides almost the only economic support for saving this park, where the park fees officially only the equivalent of 12 pence a day.
Contributions to government revenues
Some governments collect money in more far-reaching and indirect ways that are not linked to specific parks or conservation areas. User fees, income taxes, taxes on sales or rental of recreation equipment, and license fees for activities such as hunting and fishing can provide government with the fund needed to manage natural resources. Such funds can be used for overall conservation programs and activities, such as park ranger salaries and park maintenance.
The Seychelles in the Indian Ocean is introduction a US$90 tax on travelers entering the Seychelles. Revenue will be used to preserve the environment and improve tourism facilities. (UNEP, report to the CSD,1999)
In West Virginia (US) a whitewater rafting tax is collected from everyone who participates in a commercial rafting trip. The fee goes toward studying the environmental impacts of rafting. In addition, the rafting companies participate in.