Second article review
Review of Maike Fortkamp’s “Working memory capacity and L2 speech production”
The examination of relationships between working memory capacity and fluent L2 speech production at discourse and articulatory level is the aim of this research. Regarding the literary review, this study is based on the idea that there is a significant correlation between memory capacity and fluency in the L1. A difference in this research is that not only memory and L1 are analyzed but also L2 speaking criteria. Students with larger working memories are prone to speak with a minor quantity of fluency errors, is one of the main hypotheses planted in this article. Another hypotheses that is planted in this article is that the reading span test will correlate with the speaking span test, but not with the other two non – reading aspects.
The participants in this study are 16 graduate students currently studying their master’s degree in English language or literature at a central university in Brazil. Out of the 16 participants 12 are women and four are men with the age range from 22 to 39. These students are carefully picked out because they are students who have already taken the majority of their courses and are currently working on their research proposals; therefore it is thought that they have significantly high language proficiencies. The way in which this study is conducted is by the application of various memory tests and tasks through language proficiency in different areas such as: the speaking span test in Portuguese and English, a speech generation task, an oral reading task, and an oral slip task. The tests are aimed at the evaluation of memory abilities, while the tasks are aimed at evaluating L2 fluency. The results acquired from this research show that the memory capacity is functional, changing according to the individuals’ efficiency in the procedure specific to the cognitive task with which it is being correlated.
In a similar study Lennon (1990) suggests that language proficiency is relevant to language proficiency; l2 fluency changes when students are exposed to natural language. The analysis that is made consists of examining speech samples from students before and after they go to England. One of the similarities these articles contain is that they both mention something about memory, in this case temporal variables and non-fluency markers. This is relevant to the author’s research because they both try to measure fluency in language production. One of the differences between the types of tests these authors applied is that Lennon (1990) applies narrative tests regarding the description of a sequence of pictures while Fortkamp (1999) applies a variation of tests and tasks mainly to measure speech production.
This article may be useful for teachers who seek to improve their teaching techniques as well as for students who desire to improve their language proficiency through the aspects of analitic capacity, memory ability, and phonetic coding ability.This article is relevant to language teachers because it allows educators to acknowledge the importance memory capacity has in the language classroom. It also allows the students to realize that memory capacity is a strategy they could use to facilitate their learning as well as improve their language skills. This research could also help implement new styles or teaching techniques using memory capability in the English language classroom when teaching vocabulary among other aspects. After reading this article language learners or teachers may have more options regarding the English language apprenticeship and teaching.
Fortkamp, M. (1999). Working memory capacity and L2 speech production. Communication and cognition monographies 32(3)
Healy, A.,Bourne, L. (1998). Foreign Language Learning: psycholinguistic studies on training and retention. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Assosiates, Inc. p340.
Lennon P. (1990). Investigating Fluency in EFL: A Quantitative Approach. Language Learning: A journal of research in language studies 40(3)
Review of Muge Satar’s “ Computer-mediated communication in foreign language education: Use of target language and learner’s perceptions”
talks about the improvement of speaking skills through the implementation of computer-mediated communication, (cmc). Regarding the literary review, the article focuses on the following approach and theories: the communicative approach, interactionist theory, and second language acquisition theory. The author promotes the use of computer-mediated communication to reduce anxiety by raising self confidence. She also mentions that through implementation of the previous type of contact the students lose the fear of being ridiculed by their friends when they practice their communication skills. Something else that the author No need to mention the author .mentions is that through computer-mediated communication students transfer written chat to oral production taking into contemplation that synchronized text generates the same cognitive mechanisms involved in speech fabrication. The author formulates the following research questions: How much of the communication via text chat is carried out in the target language? , What are the learner perceptions on the use of text and voice chat applications with regards to: features of the sessions, tasks, matching of dyads, computer skills, and help provided?
The purpose for this research is to obtain information regarding cmc in foreign language teaching in Turkey.The purpose of the research should be in the prior paragraph. The participants are two groups of 30 students from high school seeking to obtain additional practice in English lessons during the spring of the year 2005-2006, in which text and voice cmc are used with same language participants. The way in which the study is conducted is by having the students answer questionnaires after every session in order to obtain their perception and the amount of second language used which is determined by the text chat logs that are saved after every session. Some of the tasks that are presented in the study are: information gaps, problem solving, jigsaw, and making decisions. After the author analyses the results
she finds Reword. out that 91% of the communication takes place in the target language and only 8.9% takes place in the common native language. Some of the results she obtains regarding the students perceptions averaged in text and voice are as follows:65% of the students say that the task are interesting, 87% say that the instructions are clear, 73% of the students say that they enjoy the tasks with pictures more, and 63% say that they like the interactive tasks.
Shen (2011),“The development of computer technology and internet has become the trend in language learning and teaching.” The author of the article also mentions that cmc is a very good way to develop students’ speaking skills. The author also states that one of the best ways to implement speaking skills is through cmc because of its low anxiety providers. Shen(2011) Not APA. agrees with the authors perception regarding anxiety when referring to the term “dumb English” as the situations when students need to communicate with others but they have a hard time doing it, if they even achieve it, because of tension, shyness, or lack of language skills. Another important factor in which these two authors agree upon is the participant’s perceptions. Both authors believe that the participants’ perception should be taken into consideration as well as the indicators of the study.
This article possesses many factors Awkward. and information that may be relevant to many English language teachers as well as people who are interested in the topic. This research may also help English language teachers who seek an alternative to provide more practice regarding the speaking skill. Another relevant point the article states is the perspectives of the participants regarding the study;it epresses the student's likes and dislikes regarding cmc CMC?. It may also help future teachers realize that traditional teaching is not the only way to teach. Another function this research may have is to orient language learners regarding the different types of activities they can do to enhance their language development. This research’s results prove This is one word we avoid in academic writing. that the English language may be enhanced through guided outside of the classroom activities and in this case computer-mediated communication.Versus CMC, remember what we discussed in class?
Satar, M. (2008). Computer – mediated communicagtion in foreign language education: use of target language and user perceptions. Online Submissions, Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 9(9).
Shen, L. (2011). E-learning constructive role plays for EFL learners in china’s tertiary education. Asian EFL Journal, Professional teaching article, 49.
Fillyaw, M. (2011). Case Report Writing in Doctor of Physical Therapy Education Program: a case study. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 11(1). Case Study
Remel, N. (2011). Digital Video: scaffolding fieldworking skills for research writing. Teaching English in the Two-Year College. 39(4). Field Study
Choo, S. (2011). On Literature’s Use(ful/less)ness: reconceptualizing the literature curriculum in the age of globalization. Journal of Curriculum Studies. 4(3). Literature Paper
Jaipal, K. (2011). Collaborative Action Research Approaches Promoting Professional Development for Elementary School Teachers. Educational Action Research. 19(1). Action Research
Gray, D., Iles, P., Watson, S. (2011). Spanning the HRD Academic-Practitioner Divide: bridging the gap through mode 2 Research. Journal of European Industrial Training. 35(3). Research Paper