Members of this caddisfly family will likely all belong to the genus Apatania as it is the only one documented to occur in Vermont rivers. Apataniidae have lateral and dorsal humps. Like the Limnephilidae and the Uenoidae, they have a prosternal horn; this feature is challenging to see in Apatania (or we would have provided a photograph). The most distinguishing feature of Apatania is the row of sa1 setae across the metanotum. Also, their cases are hard and always made of small minerals.