THE IATE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
TEACHER EDUCATION AND ICT: GLOBAL
CONTEXT, PLANNING AND FRAMEWORK
Sub Theme: ICT in the Education of Marginal Section— Bridging the Gap
Topic: Impact of ICT in Education through Multimedia Package for Bridging Gap of Tribal Girls at Elementary Level-An Experiment
Dr. Sujata Pattanaik
Senior Teacher Educator
TE & SCERT
Bhubaneswar ABSTRACT ICT- enabled education is a strong mode in teaching learning process. ICT has brought to the classroom more learning resources and computing facilities. Teacher and students can be benefited through collaborative, autonomous and shared learning. ICT can go a long way in quality improvement in teaching learning and evaluation.
ICT relates with –
o Professional competencies of elementary level teacher
o In-service and pre service training
o To improve the quality dimension of teachers
o Effectiveness of the use of ICT materials
o Teachers empowerment
o Quality and Equity of children
o Orient girls through distance learning materials (SLM Audio , Video and Multimedia ) ICT Strengthens elementary education in terms of Access, Equity and Quality which is essential for our sustainable development. Use of ICT helps in improvement of education of Non-starters as well as dropout adolescent girls. There is positive attitude towards implementation of ICT regularly, to promote teaching learning process in more systematic and dynamic way. In this study, multidimensional approach in ICT has been taken up to find out the effectiveness of the ICT in terms of the Scholastic as well as Co-scholastic competencies of children.
ICT meet the current challenges to address non enrolled, dropout for main streaming and impart life skill and vocational education.
In summing up, this study brings community awareness towards education of SC/ST girls children and other minor communities is one of the big achievement under SSA-Not only do the children get enrolled in Schooling but also continue and complete the Schooling System and ensure Quality Elementary Education.
In order to promote Universalisation of Elementary Education,
Govt. of India has launched the nation-wide scheme “Sarva Siksha Abhiyan” in 2000-2001. The programme envisages complete 5 year schooling for all by 2007 and complete 8 years schooling for all by 2010. Quality improvement at Elementary Education is the potential promise in the context of Distance Education Programme under SSA. All children deserve a quality education founded on a right based approach and rooted in the concept of gender equity. Universalisation of Elementary Education is a national goal for which Distance Education Programme is a national resource and major support for distance learning programme.
The thrust is on bringing involvement of women groups specifically and community as a whole. Accountability and transparency to the community, priority to Education of Girls, focus on special groups and urban deprived children, improving mainstreaming education.
Use of ICT has the potential promise to reach out a large target and made significant progress in sharing through interactive media, audio-video, media, advocacy and promotional learning materials tele-conference, audio-video conference, multimedia, computer enabled education, database informative etc. to achieve the objectives of UEE.
Sarva Siksha Abhiyan with its diversified motives has reached in each and every corner of our Nation to ensure Universalisation of Elementary Education and promoting quality of Elementary Education. The present situation / scenario with the use of ICT could meet the challenges faced by different sectors of education. A wide range of technological possibilities is the most vital support system for enhancing quality education. The technology can provide an integrated approach of multi-dimension media and its use in different areas of Elementary Education. ICT through Multimedia process and the transfer of communication technology has promoted to train people to acquire new skills required in various specific segment of education. Use of ICT has the potential to provide education and training experiences on a recurrent basis, to a large number of clientele without taking them away from work.
As ICT plays a vital role in the present scenario with its multi dimensional approach under Distance Education Programme, the major responsibilities are to promote quality elementary education through distance mode without transmission loss, reaching at the un- reached / remote areas without geographical barriers, by use of multimedia and ICT and organizing large number of capacity building programme. Various innovative approaches have been reflected in many of the interventions of SSA. This is also an innovative as well as challengeable task for mainstreaming of tribal girls through Bridge course camp.
Different experimental segments have been used as Multi-Media Package (MMP) in ICT in regular interval of time. Collection of feedback, remedial teaching, motivational camp through Video shows, Parental counseling, Door to door survey by using electronic media are some of the flexible activities like Laboratory techniques associated with this package.
ICT application is one of the Innovative Approaches introduced in Alternative Innovative Education for mainstreaming. ICT through Multi-Media Package brought one tangible out come in this Experiment and is one success story in remote Tribal pocket. The main objective of this study is to — • Promote girls education at elementary level and community mobilization which is highly essential and crucial.
• Promote the education through Bridge Course Camp of non –starter adolescent tribal girls.
• Orient girls through distance learning materials (SLM Audio , Video and Multimedia )
• Provide modalities like continuous and comprehensive evaluation
• Enhance Quality Education in both Scholastic and non –scholastic areas.
In summing up, the effective use of ICT through multi-media package (MMP) can make sure the promotion of girls education in all level (enrolment, retention, achievement) at Elementary Education.
2.0 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY
The convergence between information and communication technology has resulted in unprecedented increases in the capacity to generate, store, retrieve and distribute knowledge. These are for teaching educational implications (khan, 1997). ICT is attributed for its dynamic media and methodology due to -
Decentralized nature of the new technology
Learners have access to a variety of learning resources
Up-to-date information from the most authoritative and reliable sources can be drawn from any part of the world.
Promote the learner to receive information in a variety of formats.
The variety of ICT are being used in open and distance learning programmes as Radio and T.V. broadcast, on-line education through internet, computer connectivity, talk back channel, audio-video interaction, Tele-conferencing, video conferencing, audio cassette, video cassettes, computer based audio graphic system, telex etc.
Due to the wide spread availability of ICT, keeping in view the different medias, the case of development of multimedia package has been decided. Implementation of MMP is one of the promotional strategy has taken up with the needs and requirement of specific regions and considering upon the problems and challenges for promotion of girls education. This is a new initiative for innovative practices to promote and sustain girl’s education in SSA.
In order to, facilitate enrolment and retention of girls in schools, provide opportunity in bridging the gap for basic literacy and life skills, it has been decided to take up the study as “effectiveness of ICT through Multi Media Package for Education of Tribal Girls at remote areas” 3.0. DIMENSION OF MULTI -MEDIA PACKAGE
An intensive Community Mobilization is very much essential, working in close collaboration with the community in identified cluster. So also the dimension of Multi Media Package is quite flexible. The different dimensions are Human Resources, Use of different Medias and Material Resources.
Community mobilization through Motivational Camp.
Training Programmes for stake holders
Use of Training module (Teachers training module, VEC module)
Campaign monitoring supervision etc.
Feed back assessment
- Audio Programme -Cassettes
-Video Programme - 5 number of documentary films on girls Education
- Print -Bridge Course Module “SANJUKTA”
- Radio Programme- Different programmes, Radio broad cast,
to bring awareness
-Mobile Van, Rally, Padayatra,
Audio Cassettes, VCDs, Short films Poster, Pamphlets, leaflets T.V.s, Banners placards, Trainings, Advocacy /Promotional print Materials, self learning materials “SANJUKTA”. 3.1 SIGNIFICANCE OF MULTI-MEDIA PACKAGE Multi Media Package is one of the strategies developed, which has intensively applied and experimentally verified in the present study taken up with the following objectives.
1. Community Mobilization (Gender sensitization and Girls education).
2. To enhance low literacy rate in educationally back ward areas.
3. Enrolment of Girls
4. Universal retention
5. Quality Education
6. Bridging Social as well as gender gap
7. Provide Life Skill Education
8. Create reinforcement towards positive goal.
9. Derive pleasure and create awareness
10.Adopt communication Technology
11.Avoid conflict and communication gap.
12.Promotional strategy towards enrolment of Girls
FIG-1 DIFFERENT RESOURCES
Fig.2.Shows the dynamic and diversified strategies applied 4.0. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
• To study the effectiveness of MMP Strategies in ICT
• To find out the major areas of concerned
• To bring up the education of the marginal communities
• To motivate the adolescent girls to give a new start in education
• To give more emphasis on main streaming and quality education
• To provide life skill education for bridge up the gap and sensitize them
5.0. HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
o There exist significant improvement in the organization of MMP
o There exists significant effect in relation to audio/video material in the Programme.
o There exists significant effect in life skill education
o There exists significant effects in the achievement of co-scholastic areas of the children 6.0. BACK GROUND OF THE STUDY:
Few Educationally backward districts which were low in literacy and enrolment viz. Malkangir, Nawarangpur and Kalahandi were selected for implementing Multi Media Package under Distance Education Programme in SSA of Orissa. The literacy rate and enrolment statistics in these districts are given below. Literacy Male Female Total
Malakangiri 41.21 21.28 31.26
Nawaranpur 47.37 21.02 34.26
Kalahandi 62.88 29.56 46.20 Enrolment Male Female Total
Malkangiri 71.13 61.72 66.97
Kalahandi 76.73 70.94 74.11
Nawaranpur 58.56 41.57 50.57
The strategies adopted in MMP were very effective. It was found that maximum adolescent girls were admitted in schools during the period of implementation. Keeping in mind the same strategies it has been decided to take up the same process at Matikana of Rayagada Block in another district ; Rayagada. The replica of which was some thing different. Mostly tribal district has been considered to take up.
Tribal Education in ORISSA—
1. Tribal literacy rate 27% less than the overall Female literacy rate & widening over decade
2. Tribal children Drop out rate at primary (31%) elementary (49%) level.
As SSA aims to bridge all social category gaps at elementary level by 2010, the bridging of the gap for the tribal adolescent girls needs to be monitored closely and separately. It is a fact; Tribal children are fond up of music, songs, dance, stories, Pictures etc. and in order to promote their education. Distance Education Programme has taken major role to motivate them by arrangement of community sensitization programme, with the help of D.L. materials. To ensure cent percent retention and zero percent dropout of 6 -14 age group, all type of support have been provided to a group of adolescent girls.
For this, elaborate data base of Orissa child census-2005 has been followed to locate, out of school children in the age group of 6-14 yrs in Rayagada bock of dst. Rayagada. Total 261641 (CTS -06) children within this age are out of school children these children either did not join the school system or they left the school before completing their schooling. 7.0. Design of the study Thirty (30) SC/ST girl children of 9-14 yrs age group from different villages of Rayagada block, Dst. Rayagada, ORISSA have been selected and provided with reading writing materials, Bridge Course module SANJUKTA, Boarding & Lodging facilities, sports materials, materials for Life skill Training, Audio Video, multi-media material, full time trained EV, Life skill instructor for this six months course. Different stages were taken up which are as below. (i) At the beginning door to door survey has been made by a team, with the data provided by CTS Validation for exact verification.
(ii) One motivational camp has been held up where all the parents of the children were invited, and Sarapanch, VEC, DPG, DIs, BRCC, CRCC, State level Officers, GC ,Zonal coordinator of NPEGEL etc. attended the meeting. The VEC president has given speech in local language.
(iii) Video shows were organized with the success stories developed by DEP, IGNOU & OPEPA, JHUMPARA JEED (received National award), and ASHA, BANAMALLIRA MAHAK, NUA SURUJ, ABE BUJHILI and others.
(iv) Questionnaire both for parents and children (newly admitted) were administered & data collected, which were compiled latter.
(v) A continuous and comprehensive evaluation tools have been designed and used to study the fruitfulness of the camp in relation to scholastic and co-scholastic achievement of the children for mainstreaming after completion of their course successfully.
(vi) Remedial teachings are also provided for increasing the competency level of the low achievers.
(vii) The case history of each child has been maintained. A progress card with grade, learning competency, personal and social attitude / behavior, co-curricular activities, etc has been maintained regularly.
Different formats on personal information and Evaluation are also used to assess the psycho-educational status of the Children.
(viii) The Pre- testing tools& interview schedule designed have been administered to these children and an interview schedule developed has been administered to their parents. Other formats, health cards, daily assessment records, etc are also used by the EV.
(ix) Regular use of Audio-Video materials was recorded before use & after use.
(x) Besides; Yoga, drawing, stitching, vocational, sports & games, singing, gardening, dance etc. were regularly conducted & performances were recorded. 7.1. METHODS OF STUDY 7.2.SAMPLING
Sample of the study constitute the students of adolescent girls camp located at Matikana, Rayagada block, Rayagada district. The most important concern of the sampling is that they are all non- starters and belong to SC/ST group. 7.3 ORGANIZATION OF SAMPLE
The samples (total 30) were regularly assessed at the teaching centre by the EV and BRCC in different formats provided to them. Sample of the study has been selected from the target children of non starter and drop out Of the following age group. 7.3.1. TABLE 1 Description Age group
5-8 Age group
9-11 yrs Age group
12-14yrs Age group
9-14 Total no of the children 1 13 16 29 Table 1. shows the number of out of school children of different age group
7.3.1. Table. 11
Achievement contour of the Adolescent Girls in 1st unit test of scholastic area Sl.no. subject N Mean Mean percentage
1 ORIYA 366/29 12.62 50.48
2 FRACTION 453/29 15.62 62.48
3 EVS 330/29 11.37 45.52 (Table 11. shows the mean percentage in achievement of 1st unit test )
The above data reveals that, the children those who were not even speak and afraid to come to front they have appeared the test and achieved to a greater extent. There is significant improvement in the performance of each child. 7.4. Tools
For impartial collection of data the pre-term, mid-term and final term examination tools has been used during this six month bridge course camp. 7.5. Collection of data
Pre-test, Post-test tools have been distributed in due time i.e. before commencement of this camp and after three months to find out the effect of MMP.
7.7. Techniques of data analysis
Percentage analysis method of descriptive statistics has adopted. 7.0. Analysis and Interpretation
8.1. Pre-test Analysis
The Pre test was supported by 20 numbers of questions and administered among each girl of the camp by face to face interaction before entering into the camp. It is used as a self reporting technique to record the responses of the girls. The main aim is to the back ground information of the out of school children, difficulties faced by them, exceptional behavior, special attitude of their personal & social qualities.
8.2. Table 111. Mean and mean percentage of Post- test in scholastic Areas Sl.no. subject N Mean Mean percentage
1 Language 382/30 12.73 50.93
2 Math. 410/30 13.66 54.64
3 EVS 454/30 15.13 62.52 After the completion of 3 months camp with SANJUKTA Bridge Course Module, Post-test has conducted. The subjects were considered in 17 items (attached in Annexure 4). It has interpreted from the above table, that, there is no doubt a significant effect in systematic testing followed by use of audio video material. 8.3. Table-IV
Achievement Status in Co-scholastic areas both in 1st, mid and final Test
Area Girls secured A grade % in mid & final test Girls secured B grade % in mid & final test Girls secured C grade % in mid & final test
ART & CRAFT 20.00 30.00 49.99 65.66 40.00 20.00
General knowledge 20 .00 20.00 40.00 60.00 26.66 ---
Music & dance 66.66 83.63 16.66 16.66 6.85 ---
Personality status 56.66 93.33 27.33 6.66 28.65 ---
Vocational status 54.33 66.60 50.00 33.33 50.00 ----
Health status 83.33 95.00 16.66 ---- --- (Table IV exhibits co-scholastic achievement status in percentage)
The above co-scholastic achievement status has revealed that the girls have achieved an extraordinary success.
* Detail descriptions of various data are given in annexures. 9.0. Findings 0f the study
• Community Participation, motivation, counseling, are various strategies made tangible inputs to bring back the out of school children.
• Achievement in relation to scholastic & co scholastic areas is quite significant.
• Maximum use of ICT and DL Materials made the entire course lively and interesting.
• Methods of teaching adopted as Continuous and comprehensive evaluation (monthly and fortnightly) to asses the achievement level.
• Supplementary teaching materials in shape of ICT provided during the course are highly attractive.
• Informal setting in Educatin has proved the most challenging.
• Advances in ICT through CHILD CENSUS-2005 have increased our reach to pick up 30 out of tribal adolescent girl children in the age group of 9-14 yrs. 9.1. Effectiveness of Multi- Media Package
Regular monitoring, intensive mobilization of the community, regular use of DL Materials and ICT, provision of life skill education and pre, mid & post etc. are some of the ingredients in making personality building of these children.
9.2. Educational Implications
• Innovative method in SSA.
• Strengthen and empower tribal girls.
• Improves quality education.
• Bridges the gap in the education of marginalized section.
• Capacity building of tribal girls.
• Main streaming through AIE center with adopting these strategies. A fundamental rationale for increased community participation in the education, of children is to improve an education programme’s relevance, effectiveness and sustainability of activities by ensuring the learning programmes. In order to advance Girls education as a community agenda and point of action. References
1.Report of Lab area activities by DEP of Orissa.
2. ICT initiatives Quality Improvement Elementary Education DEP-IGNOU New Delhi.
3. One Video documentation may be shown at the time of presentation (25 mnts of time) where entire programme has been documented. Annexure1 Name Level 4 Assessment Test
Co Curricular activities:-
(GK)( ART & Craft) (Music & (personality
Dance) Development) (Health Status)
Radhika Mandingi B B A A A
Sanju Mandingi B B A A A
Sukanti Batriya B B A A A
Basanti Minaka C B A A A
Rosy Mandingi B A A A A
Chuni Mandingi A B A A A
Buchi Tadingi B B A A A
Sesi Tadingi B A A A A
Ajanti Piribaka B B B A A
Lalita Garadia B B B B A
Champi Saraka B B A B A
Pratima Mandangi B B A A A
Senkeri Mandangi C B B A A
Mamy Mandangi A B A A A
Sindi Mandangi B B A A A
Dambai Mandangi B B A A A
Aasimi Mandangi A A A A A
Champa Bidika B A A A A
Chandrabati Bidika C B A A A
Rajmani Benia C B B A A
Jatini Saraka C B B A A
Grade – A (above 80%)
Grade – B (above 60%)
Grade – C (above 50%) ANNEXTURE-!! NAME MID TERM ASSESSMENT TEST
CO CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES:-
(GK) ( ART & CRAFT) (MUSIC & (PERSONALITY
DANCE) DEVELOPMENT) (HEALTH STATUS)
Subhadra Ganta A A A A A
Gouri Kand A A A A A
Manika Saraka A A A A A
Gouri Himirika A A A A A
Kumati Piribaka C C A B B
Ambika Puala B A C A A
Sandhe Madangi C A A C A
Chumalu Saraka C B A A A
Lalmani Kalaka B B A A B
Radhika Mandingi B B C C A
Sanju Mandingi C B A A A
Sukanti Batriya A C A A A
Basanti Minaka B B A A A
Rosy Mandingi B B B C A
Chuni Mandingi A B A A A
Buchi Tadingi C B A A A
Sesi Tadingi B C B B A
Ajanti Piribaka C B C A A
Lalita Garadia C C C A A
Champi Saraka C B B B A
Pratima Mandangi B B C B B
Senkeri Mandangi B C B B A
Mamy Mandangi C B A B A
Sindi Mandangi C C A A B
Dambai Mandangi B B A A A
Aasimi Mandangi B B C C A
Champa Bidika B C A A B
Chandrabati Bidika C B C C A
Rajmani Benia B C B B A
Jatini Saraka C C C C A
Grade – A (above 80%)
Grade – B (above 60%)
Grade – C (above 50%) ANNEXURE III
MULTI-MEDIA PACKAGE Establishment of awareness for Human rights
Strengthening community representation and participation in local governance.
Involvement of VEC /MTA/NGO in multi-media package for community mobilization.
Reaching the un-reached beyond the geographical barrier.
Recognizing the importance and imperative of girls education.
Facilitate enrolment and retention of girls in schools
Provide opportunity for girls for basic literacy and life skills
Development distance learning materials.
Strengthening man, media and material.
Importance of the package
• Steady increase of learner’s attitude, motives and mastery level of learning.
• Quick and intensive spread over of the messages of Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
• Develop communication skill, massive vibration and thrill to the particular goal.
• Reception of new concepts
• Explore divergent needs, expected learning experiences, socio-economic and cultural back ground.
• Facet affinity toward girls and their education
• Community empowerment