Possible uses of audio visual media

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Contents

INTRODUCTION

The basis of all learning is experience. The best way for effective learning is to provide first hand experience like showing real objects, e.g., chair, table, boy, apple, banana, etc. But you cannot being all the real things in to the classroom. You would like to tell the students about distant lands, deserts, wild animals or events which happened in the past. To make these experiences near reality, we need the help of visual aids like flash-cards, charts, diagrams, maps, the globe, pictures, masks and puppets. With the advancement of technology in the field of education, we are now able to get video cassettes which provide great support to classroom teaching. You must remember that a mere collection of audio-visual aids cannot make teaching effective and meaningful. They are only aids and not a substitute for the teacher. We should know what material is available and when and how it is to be used. While using audio-visual aids, we should make the best use of the things available in the classroom or things that are available in the locality. To teach effectively and for effective communication we seek the help of audio- visual aids This unit essentially gives us an idea about the need for audio-visual aids, their types and use.

OBJECTIVES

After reading this unit, you will be able to: z explain the meaning of the term “audio-visual aids”; z list the various kinds of audio-visual aids; z appreciate the usefulness of audio-visual aids in language teaching, language skills; and z identify different kinds of audio-visual aids for language teaching. 19 Using the Audio-Visual Aids

AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS: MEANING AND TYPES

You might remember that there is a step called “presentation” in lesson planning. During “presentation”, you are supposed to strengthen the relationship between you and your learners by effective transmission of your ideas and experiences and through pupils’ participation etc. Effective communication emphasizes the teachers role in terms of selecting the course content and also of integrating the course content with appropriate materials like pictures, graphs, models, charts, maps, radio, television, record player, video. All these materials are complementary and supplementary to the course content. These materials are called audio-visual aids. In other words, aids that are used by a teacher for effective communication are called audio-visual aids. Audio-visual aids are of various forms. Some say they are broadly of two types, some say of three types, still others say of four or five types. But the materials or audio-visual aids that are used at the primary level may be classified into three major categories. This classification is based on the learners’ sense organs that are influenced by the aids. An aid that influences the learners’ auditory sense (sense related to listening or hearing) is called an audio aid. Such aids are the record player or the gramophone, the radio (programmes) etc. In visual aids the learners’ sight sense is involved. Such aids are the black-board, the bulletin board, pictures, charts, photographs, posters, maps, the globe, models, specimens, textbooks, silent motion pictures, etc. The third category of aids are audio-visual. In these aids it seems that both the listening (ears) and viewing (eyes) senses are involved. Such aids are television (programmes). video (films), motion pictures, computers (computer-assisted instruction) etc. Keeping the media (or medium) in mind, audio-visual aids could be divided into two categories, print and non-print. Aids or materials highly dominated by printing are called the print medium. The most appropriate example of the print medium is the textbook or supplementary readers. The message of the writer reaches the reader through the medium of print. All materials other than textbooks or supplementary readers come under non-print media. T. V., video films, charts, pictures, graphs, etc., are the non-print material. Although this classification may not appear to be very appropriate, this has been done to bring in the concept of the print medium.

Check Your Progress

Note

Compare your answers with those given at the end of this block. 1. Complete the following statements : a) The basis of all learning is .................................................................... . b) Teachers cannot bring all ............................................... things to the classroom. c) For effective communication, teachers need the help of ..................... . d) Aids that are used by a teacher for effective communication are called ......................................... e) Aids which stimulate the auditory sense of learners are called ........... . f) Aids meant to influence the sight sense are called .............................. . g) Audio-visual aids influence both the ability to ........................................ and ............................................. 20 Curriculum Transaction

NEED FOR AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS

So far we have discussed the meaning of audio-visual aids and their types. Let us see in what ways these audio-visual aids are helpful. Audio-visual aids are both complementary and supplementary in nature. Sometimes, these aids extend the scope of a topic and sometimes they enrich or strengthen the presentation of the content made by a teacher.

Audio-Visual Aids as a Means of Communication

Simply words whether written or spoken by a teacher cannot and will not provide adequate learning experience. We need to supplement the teacher’s words. Visual aids are very helpful in this regard in the form of pictures, flash-cards, posters, etc. Again in language, listening is a very important skill. If we do not get an opportunity to listen to a language, we cannot speak it properly. Hence there is a need for audio cassettes which contain recitation of poems, narration of stories etc. Such material will not only be interesting but also be motivating for the learner. Apart from these, we have video cassettes also. These cassettes present a wide variety of information along with detailed descriptions, songs, and other dramatic effects. Cartoon films are also a very useful medium for developing writing skills. We can show these films and ask the children to write about them. With the use of these audio-visual aids classroom teaching can be converted into a very joyful learning experience.

Audio-Visual Aids as a Means for Retention

We have seen that audio-visual aids make a lesson more enjoyable and more effective. The use of audio-visual aids also helps in better retention of the content. Usually when we hear something we tend to forget it within a specific time span. When we see it with our eyes we remember it for a longer time and when we perform an activity with our own hands, we understand its process. This is because of the fact that the more the senses are stimulated and involved the more will be the learning and retention among children. It is, therefore, very important that we provide a number of opportunities for listening, speaking, seeing, smelling and touching things and objects. This will give the students first hand experiences. Remember, the richer the experiences, the greater is the incentive for speaking, reading or writing about them.

Audio-Visual Aids as a Means to Save Time

In this age of knowledge explosion, we want to tell the students a number of things in a very short time. The use of audio-visual aids can be very helpful in this. Through such aids we can say much in a short time and in a short form what otherwise would take a lot of time and space. We can provide our children much more matter for thinking and acquiring information in a very short time through activities like “a thought for the day” written on the black-board and “today’s news” selected from the newspapers and displayed on a notice board. Indicating the time of sunrise and sunset on the day along with today’s news will make it more informative and interesting. Similarly, activities like presenting a conversation between a customer and a shopkeeper or between the host and his guest on audio tape saves a lot of time apart from providing learners with a model for real life conversation. Thus, a well-developed language programme supported by suitable, relevant and effective aids provides a number of enriching experiences. These ultimately lead to the development of language skills in the learner. 21 Using the Audio-Visual Aids Fig. 7.1: A notice board on which some newspaper cuttings are fixed and children are looking at them.

Check Your Progress

Note

Compare your answers with the one given at the end of this unit. 2. In what way are audio-visual aids useful for effective teaching and learning? Write your answers in the space given below. a) ................................................................................................................ b) ................................................................................................................ c) ................................................................................................................ 3. Put a tick mark (√) against the correct statements. a) Audio-visual aids help in communication. ( ) b) Listening is not an important skill in language learning at the primary level. ( ) c) Classroom teaching can be converted into a joyful learning experience with the help of audio-visual aids. ( ) d) The more the senses are involved and stimulated, the less will be the learning and retention among children. ( ) e) A well developed language programme supported by suitable, relevant and effective aids can provide a number of experiences leading to the development of language skills. ( )

AUDIO AIDS: IMPORTANCE AND TYPES

We have already discussed that learners’ auditory senses are involved and then stimulated by materials which are called audio aids. In primary grades, particularly in language learning, it is very essential to strengthen or enrich communication skills among the learners through various listening activities. Further, for accurate pronunciation of alphabets and words it is necessary to give children enough opportunity to listen to their correct pronunciation. In the classroom situation, the tape recorder, the record player or the gramophone plus radio programmes can mainly be used for this purpose, as audio aids help in 22 Curriculum Transaction better learning among learners. However, radio programmes are available for a limited time. As such it is not always possible for the teacher to use them. The best possible way is to record the relevant radio programme on a tape recorder and use it whenever needed by the teacher or the learner.

Fig. 7.2: In a classroom a song is played on the record player and nursery children

are doing some actions according to the song. Record players or gramophones are used when some songs or poems, chorus, prayer, etc., are to be presented. Other programmes can be recorded from radio and if possible from television programmes also. Audio aids help in developing the listening skill. Nowadays audio cassettes are being produced on a large scale. They contain beautiful recitations of nursery rhymes, poems, stories, etc. Apart from serving as a model of good recitation, they also create interest among learners through the various sound effects.

Record Player

The recording of one’s own recitation or narration helps us to improve pronunciation. Also, it is very interesting and exciting to listen to our own voice. Tape recorders run by battery are now easily available in the market. The tapes can be used again and again. The learners can tape their own singing or discussions and teachers can use this for evaluation of learners’ speech. Sometimes children use some unnecessary words in the sentences. For example “I na was going na to school”. These errors can be removed with the help of the tape recorder. By using a tape recorder, you can devise a good number of programmes to develop your learners’ listening skills. To help you in this we are discussing below some such activities.

Activity 1

Call two children from higher classes like class VI or class VII. Before you instruct them to read the written matter, be sure that your tape recorder is functioning well and you will be able to record the programme smoothly. Ask them to read the written pages as you desire. Record it and play the programme in front of the class.

Activity 2

You can also develop some programmes by asking two or three other teachers to help. These programmes will be very effective if you discuss what and how to do with the other teachers before you record the programme and after you play the programme before learners. 23

Using the Audio-Visual Aids Activity 3

You can involve children to read out a story and record it. Or you can do so yourself.

Activity 4

You can record some radio programmes for your learners. There is a topic “communicable diseases” in the Environmental Studies textbook. Suppose a radio programme is broadcast by the regional centre on “communicable diseases — causes and prevention”, you can record and play it before the learners. This win give an opportunity to the learners to acquire up to date and authentic information. Thus it win lead to effective learning. Before you want to develop any programme by using the tape recorder, ensure that — i) the instrument (i.e., the tape recorder) is functioning properly, ii) the voice to be recorded is appealing and clear, iii) the person can pronounce well, iv) enough pause has been given between two recorded programmes for discussion, v) the tape recorder is also equipped with the battery system. If the electric current fails, it can run on the battery.

Radio Programmes

Listening to a radio programme needs prior training in listening skills. The learners are to be guided properly before they listen to a radio programme as radio programmes cannot be repeated unless they are immediately recorded. Radio programmes are of two types. One type of radio programme is called education radio broadcasts — which provide scope for participation of teachers and students. They also supplement school activities. You along with your students may listen to the programme and take notes on them. As a follow-up activity, discuss the programme, the main events, the content, the dialogue, the characters, etc., with the students to evaluate and consolidate their learning. The second category of radio programmes are those where a general discussion on social issues, health and diseases, about the universe etc., is held. Those programmes which you consider useful for your students may be recorded and used to supplement your presentation inside the classroom. Before you guide learners to listen to any radio programmes, check whether — a) everybody has his / her own copy and pencil to take notes, b) learners know in general what to note down, c) you also have noted down a few points for a further discussion on the topic, and d) learners will be able to grasp the programme by listening to it once.

Check Your Progress

Note

Compare your answers with those given at the end of this block. 4. Fill in the blanks with appropriate answers. a) Audio aids stimulate ............................................... of learners. b) For effective pronunciation of alphabets or words ................ are essential. c) Audio aids help to develop ................................ skills. d) The tape recorder and the radio come under ............................... aids. 24 Curriculum Transaction

VISUAL AIDS: IMPORTANCE AND TYPES

Aids which require the involvement of learners’ visual senses (senses related to “sight” or “seeing”) are called visual aids. Visual aids are designed to influence the eyes of learners to enable them to understand what is being shown. In language learning visual aids are helpful in developing language skills such as speaking and writing as they stimulate learners’ sense of sight. Generally, visual aids are classified in the following two major categories: ===Category 1 :===In this category we have aids where an electronic equipment or machine is not used. The chalkboard, pictures, posters, flannel boards, charts, photographs, maps, the globe, graphs, objects, specimens, models, puppets, materials made from clay and textbook illustrations etc. are visual aids. ===Category 2 :=== In this category we include those aids which are well-integrated with machines or electronic equipment. The overhead projector and the silent motion picture fall in this category. Fig. 7.3: A classroom situation — a black board, a globe on the table and charts on the wall ===Category 1 :=== Non-electronic Equipment

(i)Chalk Board

The most commonly available aid in the classroom situation is the blackboard. Now since boards are available in many colours, such as green, white etc., we can call them chalk-boards. These can be used for writing words and summaries or drawing pictures, diagrams, maps, etc. They can be used again and again, as they can be easily cleaned with a duster. 25 Using the Audio-Visual Aids Fig. 7.4: A Blackboard in the classroom with some alphabets written in bold hand-writing You can improve your chalk-board skill by remembering the following : a) Write in bold hand writing so that all the children may see it. b) Write in a straight line. c) Develop one point at a time. d) Stand on one side of the board so that children may see what you are writing and how you are writing. e) Use a pointer, if necessary. f) Remove the unwanted information. g) Use cut-outs if you cannot draw neatly. h) You may prepare a diagram, a figure, etc., in advance to save time. It may also be very motivating for the children in creating reading readiness. i) Divide the chalk-board space for a number of activities. One part of the board can be set apart (preferably the middle) for the main points of the lesson in hand, another part for pictures, drawings etc., a third part for lists etc., and a fourth for unforeseen use.

ii) Pictures

Pictures have to be integrated with particular lessons. It is not wise to use many pictures at a time. Select a few key pictures which you feel will best develop understanding. Pictures can be used by individual students for picture reading exercises. Pictures can be collected or selected by students in order to write compositions. We should see that the pictures are suitable, artistic, clear in detail, realistic and effective in colour and size. You may encourage students to collect a few pictures on themes such as — Our Health, My Country, Our National Hero, The Freedom Struggle, our modes of transport etc. 26 Curriculum Transaction ===iii) Posters=== Posters are nothing but large size pictures. Materials developed by the Department of Pre-school and Elementary Education, NCERT (New Delhi), for developing the understanding of young children can be collected or borrowed for use. You can also develop posters with the help of an artist.

iv) Flannel-Board

You can prepare the flannel-boards very easily by fixing flannel cloth or thick khadi on a wooden board. The flannel should be tightly stretched. The cloth can be fixed on a piece of plywood. Now cut small pictures or figures and paste them on the smooth surface of a sand paper. Stick them on the flannel board. Let us see how we can display a story on the flannel-board. Here the story “The pitcher and The Crow” is presented as an example. In the above story we have discussed two major things. One of them is about the sentences conveying the story of “The Pitcher and The Crow”. Another thing is the flannel-board activities meant for learners. Let us see, whether these flannel-board activities help us in developing the following language abilities in learners. In other words, are our learners able to : a) understand the meaning of the words thirsty, pitcher, picked up, pebble etc., (Flannel- board activities cannot help the learners understand the word “thirsty”. It can be analysed through other activities by showing the picture of a thirsty person). b) use context clues; c) understand the underlying meaning of every sentence; d) recognise the relationship between sentences; and e) comprehend the story. For this particular story, along with the flannel-board you can possibly come with a pitcher and fill it with a little water and by dropping pebbles show the students how the level of water comes up. Remember, to fill the water up to a certain level so that it easily comes up to the neck or the pitcher.

v) Charts

Presenting factual information by teachers in the form of charts also develops learners’ ability to comprehend given ideas and information. Preparing a chart may reduce

chalk-board activities.

Text (Content) Once there was a thirsty crow. It looked around for water. Then it saw a pitcher. And sat down on the pitcher. The crow saw that there was very little water in it. The crow thought of a plan and picked up a pebble and dropped inside. It dropped pebbles one by one and got water to drink.

Flannel-board Activities

Picture of a crow (cut out) to be placed on the flannel-board. Place the picture of a pitcher. Remove the crow from the initial position and place it on the pitcher. Get the picture of a pebble dropping from the crow’s beak into the pitcher. Crow drinks water. 27 Using the Audio-Visual Aids For example, you want to show the birds and animals that fly in the sky, roam in the jungle and swim in water. You can display this information by dividing the chart paper into the three parts showing sky, jungle and water. You colour it accordingly. You can also draw birds, animals, fish, crocodile etc., to represent their habitats. You might have prepared or guided your learners to prepare the time table for a year. You can possibly instruct students to prepare it on chart paper. Fig. 7.5: A chart with three modes of Transport

vi) Graphs

Learners’ abilities to recognise concepts such as “more”, “greater than”, “higher”, “taller”, “smaller” etc., can easily be developed through graphs. Two types of graphs help us in developing such concepts — bar graph and pie graph. A bar graph is a figure where bars are drawn or pasted upon a graph paper. The bars can be drawn either vertically or horizontally. For example, a vertical bar can be used to show between groups A and B which group has secured the highest marks, which has the lowest marks and what percentage of marks group ‘B’ learners have secured. The learners can easily answer these questions by inferring the information from the graph. Key : EVS – Environmental Studies 28 Curriculum Transaction In the horizontal bar graph you can depict anything which you feel relevant to your text. For example, in the horizontal graph learners’ percentage of marks can be given or the number of absent learners can also be given. You can also depict those who have secured 50% -60% and were absent 9 times, and those who were absent only 2 times and have secured 80% -90% marks. Another type of graph is called pie graph or circle graph. In the circle or pie graph, the concept of (“greater than”, “taller than”, “smaller-bigger”, “highest-lowest” etc., are depicted. Below is a pie graph showing approximate relative weightage given to different subjects in the curriculum.

vii) Objects

Objects are genuine, actual-sized things. Children enjoy bringing objects to school to show to their classmates. Some industries often provide sets of objects to schools for study. You may use them in your teaching.

viii) Specimen

Specimens are part of a bigger object. Pieces of bark of a tree, a cross-section of wood seeds, buds, flowers etc., can be called specimens. These play an important part in the instructional programme.

ix) Model

A model is scale representation of an object. It may be larger or smaller than the real object. For example, you may make a model of an “Igloo -The House of Snow” with the help of paper, cotton, thermocole etc. when you are teaching different types of houses. This would be smaller than the real object. However, a model of the eye would be larger than the eye. Fig. 7.6: Igloo–The House of Snow Mock-ups of a school T. V. as a model can be used for narrating stories. It is not very difficult to prepare a mock-up. To narrate a story, illustrations of the story can be prepared in the series. The long sheet of paper is rolled on a roller pin fixed in a wooden box. The other end is pasted on a second roller. When the sheet can be moved up and down by rotating the rollers, children will enjoy viewing stories on this mock-up T. V. 29 Using the Audio-Visual Aids

x) Puppets

Children are very interested in puppets and puppet shows. Through puppetry you can see puppets doing all sorts of activities-singing, dancing, riding on horse back, fighting, playing a tabla or a sarangi etc. Fig. 7.7: Pictures of hand puppets, stick puppets and finger puppets There are many types of puppets, such as — 1. hand puppets 2. stick puppets 3. finger puppets. Hand puppets are usually worn on the hand and the hand moments makes the puppet move. Stick puppets are fixed on sticks. Many types of fruits/vegetables can be displayed through them. Finger puppets are worn on the fingers and are used in describing certain events, for example, one finger puppet can represent the king and the other the queen. There could be a discussion or a dialogue between these two.

Category 2 : Other Equipments

i) Silent motion pictures

Young learners enjoy learning through motion pictures. Silent motion pictures are those in which you can only see the pictures but you do not hear anything because there is no sound. You might have seen silent motion pictures related to the freedom struggle. You can try this by switching off the volume of your T.V. or video, where you can understand from the picture without hearing any statement, dialogue etc.

ii) Overhead projector

The overhead projector is used to show your hand-written work on a screen to be displayed before the learners. For overhead projectors there are transparency sheets on which you can write with the help of pens specially meant for writing on the transparency. You can develop many activities by preparing transparencies. 30 Curriculum Transaction Fig. 7.8: Structure of an Overhead Projector

Check Your Progress

Notes:

a) Write your answer in the space is given below. b) Compare your answer with those given at the end of this block. 5. List the visual aids which you can use inside the classroom. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 6. What is visual aid? Write your answer in two sentences. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................

AUDIO -VISUAL AIDS: IMPORTANCE AND TYPES

Audio-visual aids are those which require the involvement of learners’ visual and audio senses (both “seeing” and “hearing”). Any programme developed to show something through any audio-visual aid calls upon learners’ ability to learn through listening and viewing (seeing). Audio-visual educational programmes are so developed that these two learners’ abilities are well integrated with the information or ideas contained in the lesson to be taught. 31 Using the Audio-Visual Aids Now a days, through television or video, written or printed documents can be shown to the viewers. It also takes care of the learners’ reading skills. At the elementary grade, you can use mainly two types of audio-visual aids. One of them is television and the other is video.

i) Television

Television is an exciting means of communication. Useful programmes are being telecast regularly for children. As a teacher you should utilize the T.V. programmes and make them the basis for discussion. You may give your learners home assignments also on these programmes. For example, you may ask them to write the name of the serial/programme, the names of the main characters and some descriptions about them. Fig. 7.9: Children are watching TV and teacher is also sitting on a chair in a corner The resourcefulness of the teacher can enable him/her to utilise school T. V. programmes for classroom instruction effectively. Nowadays we have colour television which provides colour and almost real images.

ii) Video

Teaching with the help of video is called video-aided instruction. In video-aided instruction, learners’ reactions are generally ascertained through a questionnaire. Nowadays, educational video cassettes are available with video libraries in the market. The Central Institute of Educational Technology NCERT, New Delhi, and the State Institute of Educational Technology (SIET) can also provide video cassettes for the teacher’s use in the classroom. Selecting appropriate aid Knowledge about the need and types of audio-visual aids will certainly help you to select the appropriate aid for a particular topic. How can you decide what type of aid you should use in a given situation? Giving thought to the following questions will help you select the appropriate aid. i) What are you actually trying to convey? ii) Which aid will best serve your purpose? iii) Which aid is easily available? 32 Curriculum Transaction iv) Can it be used in the classroom situation? v) Can it be used in other situations like outside the classroom etc.? vi) Can you use the same aid again? Check Your Progress Notes: a) Write your answer in the space is given below. b) Compare your answer with those given at the end of this block. 7. What do you mean by audio-visual aids? Write your answer in two sentences. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... 8. Name the types of audio-visual aids that can be used at the primary stage. ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................

LET US SUM UP

In this unit, we have discussed the meaning and various types of audio-visual aids. The need for using such aids has also been discussed. Audio-visual aids help in communication, retention and providing more information in less time. We have also discussed the importance of audio aids, visual aids and audio-visual aids separately. In preparation of visual aids, the teacher’s effort is desirable. In audio aids, although teachers prepare some audio programmes, yet most of the programmes are developed by educational organisations. We have also given a few suggestions to guide you in choosing the right aid.

UNIT-END EXERCISES

1. What are audio-visual aids? 2. What is the need to use audio-visual aids? 3. What is the difference between audio and visual aids? 4. List the various audio and visual aids that you can use in the classroom situation. 5. Mention four uses of a chalk-board? 6. Identify the topics in language which need to be further explained or supported by any audio or video programme. 7. For what purpose can the video be used? 33 Using the Audio-Visual Aids 8. List how many programmes you can develop for your learners by using the tape recorder. Write your answers in the space given below. i) ...................................................................................................................... ii) ...................................................................................................................... iii) ...................................................................................................................... iv) ...................................................................................................................... v) ...................................................................................................................... vi) ...................................................................................................................... vii) ...................................................................................................................... viii) ...................................................................................................................... 9. Develop charts, pictures and graphs to teach language to the elementary grade learners. 10. Formulate flannel-board activities for teaching language to your learners.

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