Lesson 5: Community and Democratic Policing
Community Policing: Modern Supervision in Today’s Law Enforcement Organizations
Duration of Instruction Three (3) hours (2 hours lecture and discussion; 1 hour practical exercise) Materials Needed Black/white board, colored chalk/markers, film/overhead projector and screen, view-graphs, and Participant Guide
A larger number of todays community people world wide who have trouble living home for work are just lacking good solid community sense. That's why the first couple of lessons in this community polcing course must be concentrated on practising basic strategies relating to community policing.
The purpose of this lesson is to create an awareness of the changing environment and subsequent approaches in policing. The will to change is paramount to success¬ful policing. Why is this important? Law enforcement organizations must be aware of trends and changes in their sphere of activity to adapt their approaches for continuing successful performance. I. The Changing Nature of Work Faced by Organizations A. Criminal Sophistication
Lesson Objective #1
Criminals are intelligent human beings. In this age of information and ad¬vanced science, criminals have become involved in more complex activities. They have created more complex organizations. This has taken place due to the following reasons:
- They make use of the law Criminals have competent attorneys advising them on the law.
- They understand the rules of evidence and the burden of proof necessary to convict or charge them.
- Likewise, they form legal corporations and businesses that they use to further their criminal activity.
- They understand government Criminals know how laws are made and enforced.
- They know how to influence votes and lobby for power.
- They are concerned about societal impact Criminals provide jobs and security for workers.
- They get involved in charitable activities. They protect some people and groups. Loyalty is created for support and assistance.
- They use formal organizational structures Criminals have a hierarchy of leadership as in other legal organizations. There are organizational charts, positions, duties, responsibilities, lines of communication, and goals.
- They plan for the future Their decisions, like sophisticated businesses, are made looking at both short-term and long-term goals. They have strategic plans for the future.
- They take advantage of technology It is common knowledge with anyone who has experience in police work that some organized crime groups have more sophisticated and effective technology than law enforcement agencies. This technology exists in transportation, computer, and communication systems.
- They are innovative Criminals are intelligent, informed, and creative in their approaches to crime. They learn quickly to overcome law enforcement obstacles.
- Criminal Organizations and Management Concepts Governments and businesses understand that managed organized efforts lead to productive services and products. The underworld has come to understand this same idea. They have become adept at using the following management concepts in managing their resources:
Lesson Objective #2
- Formal organizational structures Formal organizations with structure, designated positions, authority and responsibility, lines of communication, and a change of command are created.
- Planning concepts Planning is used extensively. The primary goal is to make money. Crimi¬nals have intelligent and innovative members who can devise plans to attain that goal.
3. Organizing concepts Criminals know what resources are available and necessary. They under¬stand how to gather these resources and fit them into a plan of action. 4. Directing concepts Directing concepts are important to criminals. They understand that effective leadership is required for the efficient and effective use of resources. 5. Controlling concepts Controlling concepts have become sophisticated. There are quality con¬trol devices and accounting controls in place to monitor the services they provide and gains they accrue. Instructor note: Refer to known organized groups such as the Colombian Drug Cartel, the traditional Mafia of Sicily, and other emerging groups in Japan, China, and Russia as examples of well organized groups. Likewise, ask participants for information on emerging groups in their country. The question to the law enforcement officer has to be: “If your adversaries are well organized, can you say the same for your organiza¬tion?”; and “If criminal organizations see the importance and value of management theories, concepts, and principles, do you see the value of the same?” This point is important because there are a significant number of law enforcement agencies resistant to change. They hold on to the “old ways.”
Lesson Objective #3 We live in a world that is becoming smaller because of our transportation and communications systems. Travel to other districts, countries, or conti¬nents is no longer considered difficult or burdensome. Interdependence between these areas is also now commonplace. Just as cities, districts, coun¬tries, and businesses are finding that they are becoming more interdependent, criminals are understanding the same. This adds to the sophistication of criminals and is an impetus for greater organization. This is evident from the following: Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-5.
1. Targets of criminals are no longer just local The targets or sources of illegal gains are now sought outside the tradi¬tional neighborhood, city, district, or country. It is easy to travel and communicate.
2. Export of their activities is becoming commonplace 3. Specialization is on the increase Specialization is becoming a common factor. For example, a criminal organization has an illegal product, such as drugs. It must get the product to market. It can cooperate with a criminal group that has expertise in transportation, distribution, or communications systems. 4. Cooperation is on the increase Specialization leads to cooperation. Each group has something to offer and something to gain. II. Changing Nature of the Work Environment
Lesson Objective #4 Police organizations are attempting to adapt to the rapid technological advances in present day society. Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-6.
Lesson Objective #5 1. Fingerprinting Identification systems are becoming more reliable and automated. The old method involved human beings reading a fingerprint and classifying it. Systems today do this automatically. 2. Communications systems The cellular phone, wireless communications, and fax devices are revolu¬tionizing capabilities. The exchange of information in terms of speed and accuracy has greatly heightened the effectiveness of law enforcement. A picture of a fugitive, necessary for identification purposes, can be faxed across the world in a matter of seconds. 3. Computer information systems Information retrieval is rapid and organized. Patrol officers now have computers in their vehicles that can be used to query information centers. With this information, they can immediately tell whether a car is stolen, a person is wanted by the police, or a person is missing.
4. Forensics DNA and drug testing are solving many investigative issues. Research in forensics is popular and in demand. DNA testing has been used to convict as well as liberate many people charged with a crime. Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-7.
B. Personnel Makeup 1. Higher education levels The higher educational levels of police officers is forcing the way police agencies supervise their people. These newer police officers have higher expectations of their jobs. They want these expectations satisfied. In addition, they have flexibility to leave and secure employment elsewhere if they are not satisfied. 2. Cultural diversity The cultural diversity of police organizations is increasing. There are more minority groups rising in the social and economic strata due to opportunity and ability. They bring with them cultures that are, in a sense, difficult to accept or supervise by some police supervisors. Instructor note: On cultural diversity, discuss ethnic minorities and women. Many supervisors find it difficult to adjust to different cultures and customs. Some also refuse to accept other cultures. They believe the myth that their own culture is the only acceptable culture. A great deal of discrimination exists in this area.
C. Autocratic vs. Democratic Management 1. Definition of Autocratic management Autocratic management means that only the top level executives will plan, organize, and direct the organization. There is no participation by lower level members. Lower level members are in roles of following orders and not questioning them. There is no room for suggestions from those below the executive levels. 2. Definition of Democratic management Democratic management is the participatory form of organization which accepts ideas, suggestions, and the worth of the individual in terms of organizational direction. The democratic management form moves in the direction of decentralization. 3. Police organizations are learning that moving toward a more democratic form of management is leading to better performance.
Objective 6 Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-8.
There is also a greater move toward decentralization, an important part of democratic management. Decentralization is when decisions are made by those closer to the activity rather than those removed from the activity. Police organizations, like the business community, are learning that this type of decision-making is more effective. There is an increasing trust in the competence of the lower level worker, partly due to his/her rising educational and skill levels. The human element is being recognized as intelligent, capable, and effective. D. Society Society is changing. Society expects more from its police force. Corruption, abuse, and dishonesty are increasingly rejected and no longer tolerated. Some ways in which society is changing are as follows: Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-9.
1. Rising educational levels Rising educational levels mean that expectations of the citizens are higher. Thus, citizens understand the law better, are not as easily intimi¬dated, and want security. 2. A rising multiculturalism A rising multiculturalism in almost every country due to immigration or migration is challenging how police officers treat and interact with others. 3. Changing expectations such as quality of life and need for protection and security History has shown that our values and attitudes constantly change and shift. Organizations have to change with their clientele. If organizations do not change, they lose their clientele. 4. Changing laws and ethics Changing laws and ethics are due to the changes in values and attitudes of humanity. What one generation finds unacceptable or illegal may be accepted or tolerated by another generation.
Instructor note: Before showing the next viewgraph, ask the participants, “What is community policing?” Determine their extent of knowledge on this subject, then exhibit the overhead and continue your lecture.
III. Community Policing Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-10.
A. What is Community Policing?
Lesson Objective #7 Community policing is a method of policing based on the joint effort of citizens and police. They work toward solving neighborhood problems. Likewise, they attempt to satisfy the expressed needs of citizens to enhance the residents’ quality of life. In this type of policing, a police officer is assigned to a specific area (neighborhood or street) to meet and work with the residents and business people who live and work in the area. Citizens and police work together to identify the problems and resolve them. The police officer acts as the catalyst, moving the citizens toward solving their own problems and working for common protection. In the United States, 70% of the police organizations have implemented some degree of community policing. Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-11.
B. Role of the Police Officer in Community Policing 1. Social scientist The police officer must be able to understand human nature and its inter¬action with the social environment. How and why do humans react to crime? What are the fears of the citizens and how can these fears be diminished? 2. Facilitator The officer must able to work with the community and assist in identify¬ing and solving crime problems. He/she must help the community help itself. This is unlike the generally accepted role of enforcing the law. 3. Expert The officer must be an expert in crime identification and solutions.
4. Educator The officer must be capable of educating the community on its specific problems and on how the law would assist in the pursuit of safety. The police officer is the educator and expert but cannot force his/her opinion onto the community. 5. Catalyst of problem-solving activities From the perspective of local law and law enforcement capabilities, the officer must serve as the impetus of legal and effective action on the part of the community. He/she must guide and assist the community in its search for relief. He/she must be trained in problem solving, team build¬ing, counseling, leadership, etc. Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-12.
C. Major Considerations The basis of community policing is the joint effort between the citizen and the police in addressing the local crime problems. This effort requires that the citizen become a member of the team that is going to resolve the prob¬lem. It requires active participation in the initial stages of organization as well as the implementing of the plan of action. 1. Citizens must help in defining their problems. 2. Citizens must get involved in the planning of the solutions. 3. Citizens must assist in implementing the plan(s). 4. Citizens must decide if they feel their needs are being satisfied.
Lesson Objective #8 Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-13.
D. Successful Community Policing In order to be successful, community policing requires total support from the following: 1. Police The police organization must commit the appropriate resources to this program. The effort will require personnel and the support apparatus, e.g., vehicles, radios, installations, etc.
2. Business An integral member of the community is the business entity. Small and large businesses benefit from community policing. By lending monetary and other resource support, the joint effort is strongly enhanced. In some localities, the business security guards are enlisted as listening and obser¬vation posts for the police. 3. Media As in business ventures, marketing and advertising are essential for success. Media are instrumental in advertising the local crime fighting efforts which, in great part, are deterrents to criminal activity. 4. Political leaders The leaders of the community in effect control the budget and have substantial influence over law enforcement efforts. When political leaders get involved, the police tend to hear better. 5. Other government agencies such as social services, employment services, and health organizations support the effort. By assisting the community in terms of specific services, the community is better disposed to assist and work with the police. Especially in low income areas that are crime ridden, the citizen who receives helps others in return. IV. Advantages and Disadvantages of Community Policing
Lesson Objective #9 Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-14. A. Advantages of Community Policing 1. It gets citizens involved in their own security. Police organizations cannot fully protect the citizens. Citizens must get involved in protecting themselves by a joint effort with the police. 2. It establishes cooperation in a community. When the community becomes involved in addressing common prob¬lems, a spirit of unity is created. Cooperation and common purpose are created. This leads to cooperative efforts in other non-law enforcement issues, e.g., neighborhood cleanups, building parks and recreational areas, and helping the elderly in a quality of life effort.
3. Greater results can be obtained with the same police agency resources. With the assistance of the community in terms of money, reporting procedures, and information, police efforts are better focused.
Lesson Objective #10 Instructor note: Show viewgraph #6-15. B. Disadvantages of Community Policing 1. It requires extensive planning and preparation by the police agency. A specific plan must be developed. Short and long term plans must be established. Resources must be assigned. 2. It requires extensive training of police officers. Officers assigned to interface and work with citizens groups must play many roles. They should be trained in supervision principles. Instructor note: Refer to the previous viewgraph on the “Role of the Police Officer in Community Policing." Mention the interpersonal skills which will be required. Officers must be trained to work with the community in a partnership role. They must know supervision principles, the law, social forces, and the nature of the effects of crime. Their knowledge must range from criminology to social work.
3. If it fails, the community will fault the police agency. In spite of great effort and good intentions, not all community police projects will succeed. Instructor note: At this point, implement the exercise as explained at the end of this lesson. Allow one hour to complete it.