Introductory statistics
From WikiEducator
Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of numerical values, which we call data.^{[1]} As human beings in a modern world, we are bombarded by data on a daily basis: the latest poll results in a political campaign, the daily weather forecast, an advertisement claiming doctors prefer one product (as compared to others), or a debate about how to improve high school graduation rates. The goal of statistics is the use of data to enhance understanding. Statistics relies on math and calculations as one step in the process of making sense of data, but just as important is how the data were collected and what interpretations and decisions can we make based on the data.
Introductory Statistics introduces students to the major concepts, logic, and issues in statistical reasoning and to the tools involved in collecting, analyzing and drawing conclusions from data. Four broad conceptual themes are explored:
 Exploratory analysis: Observing patterns and departures from patterns
 Producing data: Deciding what and how to measure
 Probability: Investigating patterns via models which use probability and simulation
 Statistical inference: Confirming models
Objectives
During an introductory course of study, students are encouraged to:

Contents 
Topic pages
Introductory learning materials are listed for each of the four broad themes in statistics.
Exploratory analysis
Variance and standard deviation
Producing data
Probability
Inference
Supporting activities
When learning a new concept in statistics, working through a somewhat realistic analysis is often helpful:
Exploratory analysis
Producing data
Probability
 Probability_simulation__truefalse_test  a collaborative activity to simulate the results of pure guessing
Inference
 Point estimation  German tank problem  a collaborative activity on estimating the total number of German tanks given a small sample
 Hypothesis testing  unfair deck of cards  a demonstration wherein students intuit and calculate Ho, Ha, pvalue, and alpha
 Hypothesis testing of a single mean and/or single proportion  a collaborative activity to practice the steps to be performed in hypothesis testing
 Hypothesis testing of a single meanhrs/wk watching tv  a collaborative practice activity
 Hypothesis testing of a single meanverbal and math ability of CS students  independent practice
 Comparing means for two independent samplesmath ability of male and female CS students  a collaborative practice activity
 Comparing means for two independent samplesteacher ratings  independent practice
 Matched pairsADHD treatment  a collaborative practice activity
 Hypothesis testing  case studies using research reports
 Hypothesis testing  exploring research studies
 Twoway tablesdrinking and class attendance  a collaborative practice activity
 Oneway ANOVAmusic training and spatial temporal reasoning in preschool children  independent practice
 Oneway ANOVAsmiles and leniency  independent practice
 Multiple regressionpredicting achievement index score for elementary schools  an independent practice activity
 Twoway ANOVAdo level of education and gender explain US income?
Resources
Instructions for use of statistical software
The following pages offer instruction in how to perform a particular analysis using the specified statistical software.
SPSS
Notes
 ↑ Statistics. In Wikipedia, retrieved 24 June 2011.