Ict development in school
ict development in school Intorducation ;- studies of ict development in both developed and developing countries identify at least four broad approaches though which educational systems and individual schools proceed in their adoption and use of ict .These four approaches .termed ,emerging ,applying infusing and transforming ,represent a continuum and suggest a framework for the integration of ict in education. ICT Development at School Level Descriptions below to provide a picture of what each specific approach to ICT development may look like in a situation where a school is at the same level of this approach in all areas.
1.Emerging Approach 2.Applying Approach 3.Integrating Approach 4.Transforming Approach
Vision The school’s vision of learning and ICT is beginning to develop. The use of ICT is focused on computers under the responsibility of an enthusiastic individual or small group with very specific uses for teaching, or administration based on their own knowledge and expertise. The vision is a iloPhsophy of Learning and Pedagogy
pragmatic response with the access to resources and expertise available.
The individual teacher is responsible for discrete lessons concentrating on the development of ICT skills and the transmission of subject knowledge. The pedagogy of the enthusiastic individual or small group of teachers is restricted by school organisation and limited time periods. Development Plans and Policies The development of ICT in the school is separate from the overall school development plan and policies regarding curriculum, personnel, professional development, finance, community, teaching, learning and assessment. Teachers and students discover for themselves the opportunity to use computers. Facilities and Resources The ICT facilities and resources consists of a few isolated, stand-alone computers and printers in the school office and a few classrooms. The content available is very limited consisting of generic office type applications and school management software with a few games providing reward to some pupils. Content will be determined by the needs of a few teachers and their teaching. Understanding of the Curriculum The ICT teaching is to ensure students are ICT literate. The curriculum is structured to teach students a sound basic understanding of the available software applications. The curriculum is planned and delivered by individual teachers. Professional Development of School Staff Learning and ICT training will emphasise the need to learn a limited range of software for teaching and administration. Individual members of staff will identify their training needs, generally restricted to technical training. The ICT development plan will identify training separately from other school training and professional development. ICT training and development is partly funded by the school and the teachers
Community Community involvement is a welcome, although often an unplanned activity. Discrete donations of computers are accepted if and when they are offered. The community is rarely involved in teaching except to solve problems Assessment . Guest speakers support learning. Assessment strategies emphasise the limiting nature of equipment and budget on levels of attainment. Paper and pencil testing is widely used due to the limited ICT resources. Assessment allows the teacher to control the pace of learning. Assessment tasks and moderation of levels of attainment is the responsibility of the individual teacher. ICT assessment is independent of other student and school assessments. 2.Applying Approach Vision The ICT specialist is responsible for the school’s vision of learning and ICT, with the emphasis on learning about ICT and developing the school’s facilities and resources. Philosophy of Learning and Pedagogy A teacher centred didactic approach concentrates on the development and transmission of ICT skills and factual knowledge. The pedagogy of ICT specialist enables the teaching and use of ICT as a separate specialist subject. Development Plans and Policies The ICT specialists concentrating on the acquisition of ICT facilities and resources support part of the school’s curriculum controlling the development of ICT. Responsibility for development of the ICT plan and policies is delegated to the ICT specialist. The plans and policies centralise the use and access to ICT resources, tightly managing access opportunities. Funding is provided for the acquisition of hardware and software in support for a defined part of the school’s curriculum and pedagogy. The plan seeks to automate some existing practice to increase teaching and administration efficiency and effectiveness. Facilities and Resources There are a number of computer laboratories or stand-alone computers in classrooms for ICT specific outcomes with available resources and access managed by the ICT specialist. A limited range of peripherals specific to the ICT curriculum are provided as well as the computers and printers. Internet access is available for a number of the computers. Software is available to teach the ICT curriculum. The applications are used within teaching contexts created by the teacher to provide clear predictable results for the students, ensuring success. The Internet and WWW is used in a controlled way with planned access to known sites to ensure predictable outcomes to lessons. Understanding of the Curriculum The ICT teaching will provide opportunities for students to apply their ICT literacy using teacher created and isolated contexts. The curriculum is structured to provide students with opportunities to apply their ICT literacy in other subject areas to acquire specific skills and knowledge. Professional Development of School Staff Skills training will be provided to support the teachers of the ICT curriculum. The training will support the use of individual software applications and learning resources. Training will concentrate on the management of the ICT emphasising personal ICT skill development. The training will tend to be just in time for a specific teaching topic or the arrival of a new piece of software. Internet based training will emphasise the identification of information and direct support for the existing curriculum in a range of subjects. Community The ICT specialist will be seeking donations and grants to develop the ICT resources and facilities. The ICT skills of parents and the community will be sought in support of the specified curriculum. Assessment Assessment allows the teacher to report the students’ level of ICT literacy and the ability to apply their learning in ICT and other subjects. The teacher shares assessments of students’ attainment with other teachers within their subject area to moderate their reporting of standards of attainment. The assessments provide the opportunity for teachers to amend their curriculum. Assessment strategies are the responsibility of individual subject areas. 3.Integrating Approach Vision The school’s learning and ICT vision is developed and shared by subject specialists seeking to increase the levels of attainment in their subjects, exploring new ways of learning and the management of learning. The vision created belongs to all students, staff and the school’s local and global learning communities. Philosophy of Learning and Pedagogy A learner centred approach supporting students’ choice of preferred learning styles and learning environments. Students are able to collaborate with other learners, integrating learning across subjects, utilising a wide range of student found resources. The use of ICT to investigate and explore new approaches to learning is accepted. Development Plans and Policies The individual subject areas integrate ICT into their plans and policies within the whole school development plan and policies. The school’s planning processes encourage collaborative approaches to learning and the management of learning by staff and students. The funding of ICT is broadly based and integral to the annual budgetary cycle. The provision of funding covers all aspects of ICT provision, including professional development. Facilities and Resources The whole school is networked to ensure access to multimedia ICT and learning rich resources wherever you are in the school and out of school, and via the Intranet and Internet. The computer labs and classroom computers are sufficient in number to allow ready access by students and staff in most subjects across the school. The content is critically appraised to ensure it matches the requirements of the curriculum supporting a wide range of multi-sensory learning styles. All staff identifies the software and learning resources required. Onsite technical support is provided to ensure the ICT works when required. A wide range of peripheral and remote working devices, including video-conferencing are provided and integrated into the curriculum. Large and small group presentation facilities are readily available. Understanding the Curriculum The curriculum provides the opportunity for students to integrate their ICT literacy into problem solving and projects offering new ways for students to demonstrate their learning. The curriculum seeks to use real context for learning, using school based and externally available resources. ICT is used as a tutor to support specific learning goals. Staff regularly review the curriculum for opportunities to integrate ICT. Professional Development of School Staff The emphasis is on the professional development of teachers’ subject skills and capabilities to apply ICT in a range of contexts. The provision of school-based in-service training to support the shared development of collaborative, cross curriculum uses of ICT complements external provision. The school’s programme of professional development has evolved to meet changing needs and new opportunities. Community Staff and students make ready use of their local and emerging global learning communities to provide specific assistance for the curriculum making use of the additional opportunities offered through ICT, especially the Internet and video-conferencing. The school has a regular programme to attract donations and grants to further develop the ICT resources and curriculum. Assessment The students’ assessments are integrated into the whole curriculum, with reports on attainment informing all teachers in planning teaching and learning programmes of study. The students’ are responsible for maintaining a personal portfolio, demonstrating their attainment, over time, using ICT facilities and resources to complement paper based records. The assessments inform whole school curriculum planning and resource allocations. 4.Transforming Approach Vision The school provides leadership to its learning community, providing innovative and creative access and opportunities to learning and the management of learning, maximising the contribution of ICT to realise the school of tomorrow, today. The school sees itself as network centred, providing a physical place to learn as well as web based learning spaces, accessible anytime, anywhere by students and staff. Philosophy of Learning and Pedagogy The emphasis is upon the whole learner in all aspects of their learning, emphasising critical thinking skills and well-founded decision making. The student is responsible for his or her own learning. Learning is experiential, with learning pathways and learning styles continuously changing to meet learner requirements. The use of ICT to investigate and explore new approaches to learning is expected. Development Plans and Policies The school and learning community has used ICT to creatively rethink and renew the learning environment of students and staff, including the development planning and policy making processes. The plans seek to support continuous change and renewal, striving to provide truly differentiated and individualised curriculum for all students, seeking to maximise achievement. ICT funding is as essential as is the funding for basic utilities such as water and power. Effective, accessible and inclusive ICT enable learning environments are mission critical to all staff, students and learning communities. Facilities and Resources A whole school learning and ICT infrastructure providing ready access to innovative learning environments and contexts. The facilities and resources are designed and enabled to support continuous change and development of approaches to learning, the management of learning and technology. Understanding the Curriculum The curriculum is enabled by an understanding of the learning needs of every student informed on a continuous basis by management of learning systems. The students’ ICT literacy is assumed to readily enable learning within a personalised curriculum. The curriculum normally uses virtual and real world, real-time contexts and modelling. The students are involved with solving real problems. Professional Development of School Staff The focus in on learning and the management of learning with specific ICT training provided when it is required. The teachers’ development is self-managed, informed by a well-founded personal vision and plan, supporting the school’s overall vision and the needs of the learners. The teacher accepts he or she is a co-learner, learning with their students. The teachers’ are committed to professional development as a continuous critically reflective process. Community The community is a natural partner actively involved in all aspects the staff and students learning processes, providing the real world contexts through which learning takes place. The school is a learning resource for the whole community, offering access to the local and global learning environment with physical visits as well as virtual by the Internet. The school is as much a part of the community as the community is a part of the school, the boundaries are indistinct to the observer. Assessment The students’ are responsible for their own continuous assessment to inform and plan a personal curriculum, matched to their preferred learning styles. The assessments are moderated between students as well as between teachers providing a holistic view of the whole learner across the curriculum. The student maintains a portfolio of all of their work on the network. The students’ attainments and preferred learning styles determine the school’s curriculum and policies. Staff and student assessments determine the management of learning.