Gender Issues in Societal Structure of Bangladesh
Chapter Outline/ At a glance
1.2 Family and Gender Issues 1.3 Women’s Human Rights 1.3.1 The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 1.3.2 The Importance of CEDAW 1.3.3 Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 1.3.4 Implementation 1.4 Gender Discrimination in the Educational Institution
1.4.1 Gender Discrimination in the Textbook of National Curriculum of National Textbook Board
Introduction Since long run the women of Bangladesh has been struggling to establish their rights in family, society and in the state. The history of Bangladesh speaks that in any type of revolution or in constructive change, both men and women worked hand by hand. They put equal contribution in all these movements. We know that in the Liberation war of Bangladesh, the contribution of the women directly or indirectly is unmemorable. In the constitution the article 26, 27, 28 and 29, the equal right of the women is declared. Especially in the article 27, it is declared that “All citizens is equal in front of law and should be provided by the state same shelter. But practically in the society and the implementation of law, women are still facing discrimination. The male person dominates the patriarchal society, so the women are continuously they are the targets of violence. Though from stat and societal perspective man y steps are taken but these are not implementing because of the negative attitude of the society. The attitude and the stereotyping values are responsible for the domination of the women by the men. This is societal evil and it should be curbing by society. Only gender sensitiveness could change the negative attitude of the society and could invite the overall progress for the women. To remove the barrier against women, society should be built on strong basis. And this basis will be our students or the next generation. The aim of introducing this unit in the social science book of class six is to make the students gender sensitive. By gender sensitive we understand that to make aware about the gender discrimination that has been developed by the society.
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1.1Family and Gender Issues
Family is natural and historical shelter for the people. We know that all types of education originate from the family. When a child born then he or she started slowly to understand everything by following their parents. The reflection of the behavioral attitude between the parents integrated in the children. That is why parents should take care of rearing and bearing of the children and should be conscious in giving them education and imparted values to them. In any cases there should not be developed within them that there the girl is subordinate to the boys. No parents should give privilege to the son only. our society is mainly patriarchal in nature, so that either father or any other male person dominated the family. As a result discrimination grows between the boys and girls, boys are considered to be an asset and the girls are considered to as a liabilities of the family. It is very stereotyping thinking of the society that the mother and daughter should work household work and the father or the son will earn and govern the family. So discrimination starts from the family. Family is the strongest driving force for molding the children into the right direction, if the family’s impact is negative on this regard, then we could not expect from any justice to society. In the rural area of Bangladesh, the thinking is like this that the son will conceive the name of father and girl will not because she will go to her husband’s home. From religious and ethical perspective everyone should know that both boys and girls are the creation of God, so they are essentially same. Biological difference is not lacking for the girl it complements each other. The differences that apparently seen in the society is created by the patriarchal society. This type of discrimination stops the progress of the women as well as the society. So lets start thinking positively and aware everybody of the family to treat with son and daughter equally. Family is original and historical shelter for the people. We know that all types of education originate from the family. When a child born then he or she started slowly to understand everything by following their parents. The reflection of the behavioral attitude between the parents integrated in the children. That is why parents should take care of rearing and bearing of the children and should be conscious in giving them education and imparted values to them. In any cases there should not be developed within them that there the girl is subordinate to the boys.
1.2.1 Women’s human rights
From beginning of the creation, the family and state have be developed by joint collaboration between the men and women. In the primitive society the women only do household works and rearing and bearing the children. Gradually everything is changing; with the increase of the necessity today’s women are working both in private and public field. But still they do not achieve the same status in the public and private field. UN charter and later on in 1948, 10 December in the Universal Declaration has been known as human rights bill. Its objective was two---1) To flourish the basic rights and possible talents 2) and to implement it through international process.
2.2The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
2.2 a is CEDAW and why?
In 1979, 18 December the general assembly of UN has declared this convention or bill considering the issue of discrimination against women. Let’s now we look into the matter, why CEDAW is so important? Before this there were many convention but those did not get priority because those were not based on human rights.
2.2 b The Importance of CEDAW
· CEDAW is the only bill or contract which speaks about women issue · By equality in CEDAW means equality of law and practical equality · It determines the international standard regarding women rights. · CEDAW gives the complete definition about the discrimination against women. · It put equal importance to remove the discrimination on the private and public of women. · The supporting countries of CEDAW are legally bound to implement the CEDAW
2.3 Convention on the Rights of the Child,1989
In 1989 this convention has established the rights and the status of the children from international perspective. By this convention all types of basic rights of the children are reserved. According to this convention, following rights of the children are ensured:
· Rights for name---Every child has right for their own name and the name of their nationality · Rights on their parents · To get help for the lonely and orphan child. · Rights for education—every child has aright for primary education. And they have also rights for secondary and vocational education. · Rights for healthy environment · Rights for food and shelter · Rights to get additional help for the disabled child · Rights for health and treatment · Rights for games · Rights to refrain from hard work · Rights to refrain from sex violence · Rights to get rid of inhumane behavior · Rights to remain safe fro war · Rights to express their own opinion.
In our constitution the rights of women and children was well reflected. But the question arises to what extent actually they are implemented in the real life. After 37 years of liberation war still the women are discriminated in the society. To remove the discrimination, all of us should understand about CEDAW. Once we understand the importance of CEDAW, it will be easier to resolve the problem. The children are the future generation of Bangladesh, who will lead the country, so our duty is to reserve their rights. Only some form of sacrifice, affection, and sympathy could reserve the rights of the children. The constitution of a country is a holy treaty, so we should be respectful to our constitution and hence could ensure the basic rights of the women and the children.
3.1 Gender Discrimination in the Educational institution:
The goals of education for All (EFA) are currently concerned with equality. If children are excluded from access to education, they are denied of their human rights and prevented from developing their talents and interest in different dimensions. Bangladesh is committed to EFA and Dakar Framework and UN Millennium Goals for 2015. Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005 and gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girl’s full and equal access to basic education of good quality is one of the major goal of Dakar framework. A significant achievement of the last decade was to attain gender parity in primary school enrolment. Other components are improvement in gross and net enrolment in primary education and reduction in dropout and improvement in completion of the cycle, encouraged by provision of free textbooks to all students, food for education and lately stipends for stipends for poor children.
3.2 Gender Discrimination in National Text Book Board:
National Curriculum and textbook Board (NCTB) had already made some progress towards gender-balanced curriculum and textbooks. They have adopted policy to change the textbooks in order to make it more gender-sensitive. They had done much more progress in making a basic changes in the text, content, instructional design and in overall curriculum. The changes that will be recommended are not any radical or basic change. The suggestions are given to make the textbook and curriculums more gender balanced and gender-sensitive. Childs formal education
The key points of this chapter are as follows:
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