# CONCEPT OF EVALUATION AND ITS PRINCIPLES

## Objectives

At the end of this this session,you will be able to

• Define the terms evaluation, testing, measurement and assessment.
• Describe the ways in which evaluation is relevant to make instructional decisions.
• See relationship between the objectives, teaching and evaluation.
• Explain why the knowledge and practice of evaluation is required for teachers

## Testing

An instrument or systematic procedure for measuring a sample of behaviour by posing a set of questions in a uniform manner. Because a test is a form of assessment, tests also answer the question, “How well does the individual perform – either in comparison with others or in comparison with a domain of performance tasks? “ Measurement The process of obtaining a numerical description of the degree to which an individual possesses a particular characteristic. Measurement answers the question, “How much?”. Example:- When the teacher calculates the percentage of problems of student Geetha has correct, and gives her a score of 70/100, that is measurement.

• Test is used to gather information.
• That information is presented in the form of measurement.
• That measurement is then used to make evaluation.

## Assessment

Any of a variety of procedures used to obtain information about student performance includes traditional paper and pencil tests as well as extended responses (e.g. essays) and performances of authentic tasks (e.g. laboratory experiments). Assessment answers the question, “How well does the individual perform?”. Note that term assessment is used to mean the same as evaluation.

## Concept of Evaluation

Evaluation has a wider meaning. It goes beyond measurement. When from useful information including measurement, we make a judgement, that is evaluation. Example:- The teacher may evaluate the student Geetha that she is doing well in mathematics, because most of the class scored 50/100. This is an example of evaluation using quantitative data (measurable information). The teacher might also make an evaluation based on qualitative data, such as her observations that Geetha works hard, has an enthusiastic attitude towards mathematics and finishes her assignments quickly.

• Evaluation is a Science of providing information for decision making.
• It Includes measurement, assessment and testing
• It is a process that involves
• Information gathering
• Information processing
• Judgement forming
• Decision making

From the above, we can arrive at the following concept of evaluation

Evaluation is a concept that has emerged as a prominent process of assessing, testing and measuring. Its main objective is Qualitative Improvement.

Evaluation is a process of making value judgements over a level of performance or achievement. Making value judgements in Evaluation process presupposes the set of objectives

Evaluation implies a critical assessment of educative process and its outcome in the light of the objectives.

## Purposes of Evaluation

• Evaluation is the process of determining the extent to which the objectives are achieved.
• It is Concerned not only with the appraisal of achievement, but also with its improvement.
• Evaluation is a continuous and a dynamic process. Evaluation helps in forming the following decisions.

## Types of Decisions

• Instructional
• Curricular
• Selection
• Placement or Classification
• Personal

Among the above decisions, we shall learn how evaluation assists a teacher in taking instructional decisions. Evaluation assists in taking certain instructional decisions like:

1. to what extent students are ready for learning experience?
2. to what extent they can cope with the pace of Learning Experiences provided?
3. How the individual differences within the group can be tackled?
4. What are the learning problems of the students?
5. What is the intensity of such problems?
6. What modifications are needed in the instruction to suit the needs of students, etc.

Evaluation is an integral part of teaching and learning process. This is explained in the following figure.

## What should teachers learn about evaluation?

1. Choosing evaluation methods appropriate for instructional decisions;
2. developing methods appropriate for instructional decisions;
3. administering, scoring and interpreting the results of both externally produced and teacher-produced evaluation methods;
4. using evaluation results when making decisions about individual students, planning teaching, developing curriculum and school improvement,
5. developing valid pupil grading procedures, which use pupil assessments,
6. communicating evaluation results to students, parents, other lay audiences, and other educators;
7. recognizing unethical, illegal and otherwise inappropriate evaluation methods and uses of evaluation information.