Practice:Aakwaamensah/My Practice Area
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- The main strength of a wiki is the ability to work collaboratively on the same document with a #Internet browser being the only software requirement on the users machine.
- Consequently wikis are used for a variety of purposes.
If you make a mistake, its easy to revert back to an earlier version of the document.
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TERMINOLOGIES FOR DRUG ORDER AND ADMINISTRATION ABBREVIATION LATIN TRANSLATION REGULAR MEANING a.c. Ante cibum Before Meals
b.d. bis die Twice Daily
t.d.s. or t.i.d tie die sumendus Three times daily q.d.s. or q.i.d Quarter die sumendus Four times daily o.m. Omni mane In the morning o.n. or nocte Omni nocte At night p.r.n. Pro rata nata When required/necessary o.d. Omni die Daily Stat. Statim Immediate, as initial dose s.o.s. If necessary p.v. Per vagina IM Intra muscular IV Intravenous q.q.h Quarter in die Four hourly p.o. Per Os/Mouth SC Sub Cutaneous mg Milligram L Liter ml milliliter Tab Tablets Cap Capsules or Caplets Syr. Syrup Susp. Suspension Gutt. Drop MU Mega Unit kg Kilogram p.c. Post cibum After meals g or gm Gram SL Sub lingual
ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION There are various drug forms and they are taken through selected routes for effectiveness. These drug forms are: Tablets, Capsules, Pills, Caplets, Liquids, Mixtures, Elixir, Mixtures, Emulsions, Syrups, Creams, Ointments, Lotions, Injections, suppositories and pessaries, eye drops, ear drops, nasal drops/sprays, inhalers, patches etc. The routes are thus:
1. Oral: This is the most popular and the drug is swallowed, chewed sucked or licked. Drug absorption is through the stomach blood vessels, walls of the intestines or further down the guts. Tablets, mixtures, capsules, lozenges, syrups suspensions are taken via this route. It is the slowest, simplest but safest. But patients may vomit the drug, have diarrhea, constipation and this may affect the time that the medication remains in the stomach, quantity and as such efficacy. NOTE: In case of a mistake or an overdose vomiting, stomach lavage (wash-out), or purging can be induced for oral drugs making their intake somehow reversible.
2. Sublingual: This is another oral route where the drug is placed under the tongue till it gets dissolved and absorbed straight into the systemic circulation without going through the portal system or the liver. It is largely employed when rapid response is needed e.g. for Glycerol trinitrate, Nitroglycerin.
3. Intravenous This is the fastest and most certain route. The drug is introduced through the veins. This method is reserved for doctors and other skilled senior health professionals. The method can be dangerous because the drug, foreign body and infection may be introduced into the circulation system or the drug into artery by the unskilled and inexperienced. The result is always irreversible and fatal.
4. Intramuscular Route The drug is in introduced deep in the muscles of the upper outer buttock to avoid the sciatic nerve, lateral thighs, deltoid muscle of the upper arm and in the case of rabies the abdomen with a sterile needle and syringe, which must be disposed after each use.
5. Subcutaneous Route The injection is given under skin and above the muscle in to the subcutaneous tissue.
Advantages of the Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Routes Effect is usually rapid and more reliable than the oral route.
Dis-advantages of the Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Routes Irreversible, may cause irritation at the site, pain, and possible abscess. It is not advisable to mix various drugs in the same syringe because they may be reaction like coagulation and antagonistic effects.
6. Inhalation Drugs used for greater effect on the lungs and presented in the form of sprays, drops, and inhalers are used through this route. Anesthetic agents that are gaseous and volatile, steam and also nasal preparations for respiratory tract conditions are administered by inhalation. Like the sublingual, IV, IM, subcutaneous routes, once the drug is taken it cannot be retrieved.
7. Topical and other skin Routes. Drugs used by this route are external applications for the skin and they are employed to get a local effect. e.g. lotions, creams, poultices, powders, liquids etc. Patches are also applied to the skin.
8. Vaginally; This is by inserting pessaries, tablets, gels, creams, foams and douches into the vaginal canal for therapeutic reasons.
9. Rectal Route; The drug is introduced into the lower rectum manually or via an applicator. The effect can be local or systemic. Anti-inflammation and hemorrhage controlling drugs for hemorrhoids, suppositories and enemas are used per this route. This route is used to treat patients, who are vomiting, comatose, have difficulty in swallowing medication and need peristaltic stimulants.
10. Ophthalmic and Optic Route; The drugs are instilled in the eye or dropped into the ears
ROUTES OF ELIMINATION After a drug has been taken, distributed, metabolized there is excretion and the products undergo some physiological changes. The end products eliminated by; • Kidneys by urine • Liver through the bile which colors end products like stool and urine • Skin by sweating • Lungs by expired air • Minor sources e.g. breast-milk, faeces, saliva