A Study of the Relationship Between Teacher Effectiveness and Multiple Intelligence of Secondary School Teachers
Researcher : Ms Cynthia D'Costa, Lecturer in Education, Pushpanjali College of Education, Vasai, Maharashtra
Guided by : Dr. Veena Deshmukh, Hon. Prof, Smt K.K college of Education, Mumbai
Introduction: Teaching is a complex professional activity whose effectiveness can be helped or hindered by a host of factors, including physical environment, policies on the curriculum and pupil assessment, quality assurance and accountability systems, institutional leadership. Today a teacher is seen as a facilitator allowing for idea generation. By animating, leading and counselling, the teacher is a mentor. Guiding, evaluating and collaborating puts the teacher in the role of an information provider The role of the teacher as a researcher and a learning resource developer cannot be undermined in this age. As a curriculum planner and organizer, a teacher plays an active role in the actualization of the curriculum.These roles are closely related one to another. Human resource planning should involve matching teachers with the roles for which they have the greatest aptitude. Factors influencing teacher effectiveness could be subjective or objective. However, how one deals with these factors and makes the best of given circumstances, is determined by one’s multiple intelligences. In his landmark book, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983), Prof. Howard Gardner of Harvard University provided extensive research to support his contention that human intelligence is multifaceted rather than singular. A study was undertaken to seek the relationship between Teacher Effectiveness and Multiple Intelligences.
Need for the Study: The need for the study is strongly felt to individualise the Training Programme for teachers according to their strong areas of Multiple Intelligence ,help trainee teachers to enhance effectiveness of teaching their special subjects by optimizing their strong areas of Multiple Intelligence, be of assistance to educational managers to choose the right candidate according to his strong areas of Multiple Intelligence , prepare an effective teacher profile for teachers, help In service teachers to enhance their teaching effectiveness by optimizing areas of strong Multiple Intelligences and seek ways to develop relatively weaker areas of Multiple Intelligence
Statement of problem:
The statement of problem is a declarative statement that gives direction to the research process. In this case the statement of the problem is “A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AND TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS OF SCHOOL TEACHERS”
Objectives of the study: The main objective of the study was to find the relationship between nine areas of Multiple Intelligence and teacher effectiveness of Secondary School teachers. The study also aimed at drawing up an Multiple Intelligences based profile for effective teachers
Variables involved in the study: The observed independent variable in the study was Multiple intelligences of the teachers. The scores of teacher effectiveness in four areas viz presage effectiveness; process effectiveness, product effectiveness and contextual effectiveness were dependent variables.
Tools used: To ascertain Teacher Effectiveness, the investigator prepared a Likert type rating scale to find process effectiveness, product effectiveness, and contextual effectiveness and presage effectiveness. Students would use this tool to evaluate their teachers. The scale on presage effectiveness was administered to the teachers. The reliability of the tool was 0.82 by Test –retest Method and 0.92 by Split Half method. The teachers also had to respond to a Multiple Intelligence scale with 108 statements. The reliability of this tool was 0.7 by Test retest Method and 0.693 by Split Half method.
The sample consisted of 300 Secondary School teachers; all minimum graduates and professionally trained .They were from Marathi and English medium schools. Teachers teaching Languages, Social Sciences, Science and Mathematics were part of the sample. Teachers teaching only P.T, Drawing and Craft were not included.
Method of the study: The study could be best described as a Quantitative Study carried out using the Descriptive Research Methodology.
Statistical methods used: Statistical tools used included t test , ANOVA , Pearson’s moment co relation and coefficient of determination . Multiple Regression was used to find the best fit equation to determine the relationship between Teacher Effectiveness and Multiple Intelligences.
Findings of the Study: A brief summary of the findings of the study is given below: Effective Teachers display high scores in all areas of Multiple Intelligence as compared to their Average or Low Effectiveness counterparts. The degree to which they exhibit Multiple Intelligences is even more profound for Existential, Inter Personal and Logical Intelligences. The mean Inter Personal Intelligence for Teachers with Low Effectiveness is higher than the over all mean Inter Personal Intelligence. Mean Inter Personal Intelligence of the Teachers with High Effectiveness is higher than both the above mentioned. This means that having High degree of Inter Personal Intelligence is conducive to Teacher Effectiveness. But the fact that even those with Low effectiveness show high Inter Personal Intelligence could mean that they are probably not putting this trait to good use for teaching. Teachers with Higher Teacher Effectiveness show higher Multiple Intelligences in all areas.
Relationship between Teacher Effectiveness and Different areas of Multiple Intelligence: Teachers with High Inter Personal, Existential and Logical Intelligences are more effective than those who are Low in the above mentioned Intelligences. With Higher Interpersonal Intelligence a person is able to understand others and communicate better. This seems to play a vital role in Teacher Effectiveness. The presence of High Existential Intelligence means the ability to ponder over life’s realities and pose reflective questions to oneself. Such people have a higher value system. This probably translates into concern over one’s actions and their implications. A person with High Existential Intelligence behaves responsibly and with commitment. They are generally God fearing and take their actions seriously. This may be a contributing factor to Teacher Effectiveness. Logical Intelligence which has significant effect on Teacher Effectiveness is the ability to understand cause effect relationships. It also denotes a certain amount of orderliness and systematicness in one’s life. Logical Intelligence helps to work with hindsight, insight and foresight.
•Relationship between Process Effectiveness and Different areas of Multiple Intelligence:
It is seen that Inter Personal and Existential Intelligences show a high bearing on Process Effectiveness. The effect of Verbal, Logical, Visual, Kinaesthetic Intelligences on Process effectiveness is significant at the 0.05 level. In a classroom there has to healthy Inter Personal Communication between the teacher and the taught. Mere Verbal skills are not adequate. Concern for the taught, strong presence of teacher’s value system, planning that is brought about by Logical Intelligence are all the products of the presence of strong Multiple Intelligences. High Kinaesthetic Intelligence results in appropriate use of bodily movements. An animated presence of a teacher adds to Process Effectiveness. The presence of strong Visual Intelligence could perhaps means that the teacher is well groomed.
•Relationship between Product Effectiveness and Different areas of Multiple Intelligence: Product Effectiveness refers to Effectiveness of those components that are the effect of class room interaction on pupil’s learning. For example if the student is satisfied with the classroom interaction he/ she may develop an interest in the subject or may study the subject readily. The teacher’s role in solving difficulties related to studies, assisting knowledge building, conducting tests, giving feedback during assessment work or helping the students to know themselves better all have a considerable impact on the student’s learning. Product Effectiveness to an extent complements Process Effectiveness. The analysis of Product Effectiveness scores showed that for Teachers who score high on Product Effectiveness, Logical, Visual, Kinaesthetic Intelligences are significantly higher at the 0.05 level than those Teachers who score less on Product Effectiveness. In case of Inter Personal and Existential Intelligences the difference in means is significant at the 0.01 level. Conclusively it may be said that there is need for a teacher to think logically and anticipate what problems the student may encounter during learning. Hence such teachers help to build a problem solving attitude or they help students in setting goals. Presence of strong Existential Intelligence once again crystallizes into a deep sense of commitment which results in going beyond the call of duty and helping students with respect to reference material, guidance regarding how to study. These teachers have shown a high score for Inter Personal Intelligence and take keen interest in the students’ welfare.
•Relationship between Contextual Effectiveness and Different areas of Multiple Intelligence:
Only teaching, assessment or evaluation do not make a teacher’s job. A teacher while performing other roles directly or indirectly influences the student. The effectiveness of these roles is probed to by Contextual effectiveness which refers to those components that whilst not a part of actual classroom teaching are yet an integral part of the teacher’s role and they include interaction with students and their parents outside class, the rapport shared by the teacher with students and parents that contributes towards the achievement of the teacher’s objectives of all round development of the student. It was seen that there is significant difference between the means of Logical, Visual, and Interpersonal Intelligences at the 0.05 level when the means for Teachers with High Contextual effectiveness and Low Contextual Intelligence were considered. This difference in means was found significant at the 0.01 level in case of Existential Intelligence. Teachers with High Inter Personal Intelligence are able to relate well to parents and communicate relevant information regarding the students’ progress. With their High degree of Logical Intelligence perhaps they are able to help the students look at studies from a logical perspective. Also such teachers automatically make better counselors. They create a warm and supportive classroom climate, advise in case of personal problems and interact with students even when out of class. They themselves being value oriented as is seen from their high Existential Intelligence scores, such teachers nurture values in teaching and are optimistic regarding their students. Even though such traits may not directly influence teaching they are valuable traits as they help the teacher in actualising a more vital role namely that of a developer of Human Resources. Their enthusiasm (probably an off shoot of their High Inter Personal Intelligence) is also a reason why students find them effective. Referring to the Theory of Conditioning, when students like a teacher they like the subject the teacher teaches and vice versa. The attitude that students form about a teacher is largely influences the Contextual Effectiveness of the teacher.
• Relationship between Presage Effectiveness and Different areas of Multiple Intelligence:
Presage Effectiveness is that effectiveness with which a teacher enters a class. It includes the extent to which a teacher prepares before teaching, the planning that goes into choice of support material, the involvement of the teacher in planning evaluation, planning for co relation, involving oneself in professional growth. These traits and efforts are necessary to enhance the effectiveness of actual teaching. In case of Presage Effectiveness it is seen that teachers with High Presage Effectiveness show significant difference in means for all areas of Multiple Intelligences when compared to their counterparts with Low Presage Effectiveness. Those with High Presage Effectiveness are good planners planning for details about co relation, evaluation activities. They update themselves regarding changes in their respective subjects, take the help of co teachers to enhance their effectiveness and are ready to attend sessions for upgrading their skills and knowledge.
From the above discussion it is generally seen that Existential and Inter Personal Intelligences have a marked effect on Teacher Effectiveness. Kinaesthetic , Verbal and Logical Intelligences seem to be the next group that have an effect on Teacher Effectiveness. Areas as Intra Personal, Naturalistic, Musical Intelligences seem to have the least impact on Teacher Effectiveness. Visual Intelligence also figures as an area of considerable impact on Teacher Effectiveness.
Methods of Teaching and Teacher Effectiveness: Analysis and statistical treatment of data shows that there is no significant difference in the extent to which Teachers with High Effectiveness use a particular method as compared to the extent to which Teachers with Low Effectiveness use that method. One remarkable exception was the use of Lecture Method. It is seen that Teachers displaying Low Effectiveness use Lecture Method to a significantly greater extent as compared to teachers with High Effectiveness. It may be recalled that mean Verbal Intelligence of Teachers with High Effectiveness is higher than Teachers with Lower Verbal Intelligence. This means that despite having High Verbal Intelligence, teachers with High effectiveness use Lecture method (a method likely to be linked with Verbal Intelligence) judiciously. It was also seen that Teachers with High effectiveness show significantly greater use of Computer Aided Instruction when compared to their counterparts with Low Effectiveness.
Methods of Teaching and Multiple Intelligences: The relationship between use of different techniques of teaching and areas of Multiple Intelligence was studied. It was seen that for almost all areas of Multiple Intelligence Teachers who were Low in a given area of Multiple Intelligence tended to use lecture method to a significantly greater extent than their counterparts who were high in that Multiple Intelligence. There is some bearing between teachers’ areas of high Multiple Intelligence and the use of teaching techniques. Those showing high scores in Verbal Intelligence used Discussion and Songs to a significantly greater extent than those who were low in Verbal Intelligence. Logically inclined teachers used demonstrations, Project work, Small group Learning and Computer Aided Techniques more than the others. Those who reported high scores for Visual Intelligence tended to use more of Demonstrations, Projects work, Small group Learning and Computer Aided Techniques. Musically inclined teachers reported greater use of games and Jingles and songs in their teaching. Kinesthetically gifted teachers used demonstrations and Small group learning to a greater extent than those not high on Kinaesthetic Intelligence. Teachers with High Inter Personal Intelligence showed significantly greater use of games, demonstrations, Small Group Learning and Jingles in teaching. Teachers who reported high scores in Existential Intelligence were found to use games, demonstrations, discussions, Small group Learning and Jingles top a significantly greater extent. Teachers high in Multiple Intelligences took more efforts to plan their interaction techniques rather than just depending upon lecture method. Teachers who reported lesser scores in different areas of Multiple Intelligence were found to be complacent in the use of one or two techniques. More child centred methods were used by teachers who were high in Inter Personal, Existential and Kinaesthetic intelligences. The tool to ascertain Teacher Effectiveness contained an open ended section where students were invited to write some qualities of the teacher being evaluated. A careful study of the same has revealed that Teachers who were found to be high on Effectiveness were those with motherly qualities, ones who were impartial, ones who empathized with the students. The students do not prefer teachers with double standards. Generally students appreciate being corrected by their teachers. Teachers who are normally accepted are ones who teach well, are reasonable in their behaviour and treat all students equally. Acceptance of students by teachers, the readiness to solve doubts and the amount of approachability they exhibit is also important. On the other hand biased teachers, those who are rude in speech, those who criticize without respecting the students’ dignity are unpopular. Based on Multiple Regression coefficients, a profile for an Effective teacher would require the teacher to be strong in the various areas of Multiple Intelligence according to the following order: Existential Intelligence, Kinesthetic Intelligence, Inter Personal Intelligence, Logical Intelligence, Verbal Intelligence, Visual Intelligence, Musical Intelligence, Intra Personal Intelligence and Naturalistic Intelligence. Significance of the study lies in the fact that the areas of Multiple Intelligence with a strong bearing on Teacher Effectiveness are evident. Methods used by effective teachers are also explicit. Effective teacher profiles drawn up help to know which areas of Multiple Intelligences need to be strong. Researcher’s note: The teacher needs to be positive(to build rapport, generate enthusiasm, maintain interest and help when the going gets tough) they must be proactive( to make things happen, be a catalyst (if necessary) to help learners learn, to recognise when action needs to be taken and take it) they must also be patient( to understand the needs of each learner as well as the group and to adapt to their timeframes as far as possible) they also need to be persistent( to keep at things, stop learners from drifting away, and deal with any technical or other problems ).The teacher need intuition, initiative and assertiveness, the ability to assess student needs by picking up on hints and reading between the lines. Intelligence is a mixture of several that are all of great value in life. In life people have to be collectively good at different things. A well-balanced world and well-balanced organisations and teams, are necessarily comprised of people who possess different mixtures of intelligences. This gives the group a fuller collective capability than a group of identically able specialists. Multiple Intelligences have to be contexualised so as to be of optimum value. Reflection over the results of the study has given the investigator an insight that needs to be studied further. A teacher generally has a fairly good blend of different intelligences. How he / she utilizes these in teacher –student –parent transactions is important. Effective teachers seemed to have a unique talent to make the right move at the right time. The investigator sees this as a kind of intelligence which she chooses to term as ‘pragmatic intelligence’. Conclusion: Effective organizations stem from effective personnel whose talent is aligned with the goals of the organization. The application of the results of this study will help to generate strategic workforce alignment. Better harnessing of the potential of the teachers will result in effective school activities, which in turn will reap dividends in the form of effective future generationsThe study holds significance from the point of view of pre-service and in-service Teacher Education, where programmes can be formulated to help a teacher develop areas of Multiple Intelligence that will help enhance effectiveness as a teacher.